舰船科学技术  2020, Vol. 42 Issue (8): 134-139    DOI: 10.3404/j.issn.1672-7649.2020.08.025 PDF

1. 大连海事大学 船舶电气工程学院，辽宁 大连 116026;
2. 广东海洋大学 海运学院，广东 湛江 524088

Research on design and optimization control of ship hybrid electric propulsion system
ZHANG Cheng1, JIA Bao-zhu1,2
1. Marine Electrical Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China;
2. Maritime College, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
Abstract: In order to improve the energy efficiency of the diesel-electric hybrid propulsion system, a control strategy suitable for hybrid electric propulsion ships is proposed. The state of charge of the lithium battery pack is taken as the state parameter, according to the load change trend under different electric loads and the best diesel generator fuel consumption rate curve, to achieve the optimal increase and decrease machine control under multiple networking conditions, and the optimal load adjustment under a single network condition. The simulation results show that by controlling the number of generators in the network and setting the power load of a single generator, the fuel consumption of the hybrid electric propulsion system can be reduced and the working efficiency of the diesel engine can be improved.
Key words: hybrid electric propulsion     control strategy     optimal control     fuel consumption rate
0 引　言

1 模型建立

 图 1 船舶混合电力推进结构图 Fig. 1 Hybrid electric propulsion ship structure

1.1 柴油发电机组功率效率分析

 ${C_1} = {C_0} + a \times {P_m} + b \times {P_m}^2{\text{。}}$ (1)

 图 2 柴油机油耗率与负荷关系图 Fig. 2 Diesel engine fuel consumption rate and load diagram
1.2 DC/DC变换器和锂电池组

DC/DC变换器的工作模式分为升压变换器模式（Boost）和降压变换器模式（Buck），在这2种工作模式下，DC/DC变换器的工作效率几乎相同，均能以等效电阻的形式建立模型，开关损耗和电容、电感等损耗则忽略不计。为便于分析，按照高压侧电压导出损耗计算公式如下[11]

 ${P_{{\rm{bid,l}}}}{\rm{ = }}{R_{{\rm{bid}}}}I_{{\rm{bid}}}^2 = {R_{{\rm{bid}}}}\frac{{P_{{\rm{bid,h}}}^2}}{{V_{{\rm{bid,h}}}^2}}{\text{。}}$ (2)

 ${V_b}{\rm{ = }}{V_0}{\rm{ + }}{R_{\rm{b}}} \cdot {i_b} - K\frac{Q}{{Q + \int {i({\rm{t}})dt} }} + A \cdot \exp \left( {{\rm{B}}\int {i({\rm{t}})dt} } \right){\text{，}}$ (3)
 $SOC = 100\left( {SO{C_{ini}} - \frac{1}{Q}\int_0^t {i(t){\rm{d}}t} } \right){\text{。}}$ (4)

 ${P_{b,l}} = {R_b}I_b^2{\rm{ = }}{R_b}\frac{{P_b^2}}{{V_b^2}}{\text{。}}$ (5)

 ${P_{{\rm{ess,l}}}} = ({R_{\rm{b}}} + {R_{{\rm{bid}}}})I_{\rm{b}}^2{\rm{ = }}({R_{\rm{b}}} + {R_{{\rm{bid}}}})\frac{{P_{{\rm{bid,h}}}^2}}{{V_{{\rm{bid,h}}}^2}}{\text{。}}$ (6)

 ${P_{\rm{s}}} = {P_{\rm{L}}} + {P_{{\rm{ess,l}}}} + {P_{{\rm{bid}}{\rm{.h}}}}{\text{，}}$ (7)
 ${P_{\rm{s}}} + {P_{{\rm{bid,h}}}} = {P_{\rm{L}}} + {P_{{\rm{ess,l}}}}{\text{。}}$ (8)

 ${P_{ess,l}}{\rm{ = }}\frac{{({R_b} + {R_{bid}})}}{{V_{bid}^2}}{({P_s} - {P_L})^2}{\text{，}}$ (9)
 ${P_{ess,l}}{\rm{ = }}\frac{{({R_b} + {R_{bid}})}}{{V_{bid}^2}}{({P_L} - {P_s})^2}{\text{。}}$ (10)
2 控制策略设计

 图 3 船舶柴油发电机组油耗率曲线 Fig. 3 Specific fuel consumption curve of marine diesel units

 $\alpha = \frac{{{P_{\rm{s}}}\left( t \right) - {P_{{\rm{s}}a}}}}{{({P_{\rm{L}}}\left( t \right) - {P_{{\rm{L}}a}})}}{\text{。}}$ (11)

 图 4 优化策略分析 Fig. 4 Optimization strategy analysis

 图 5 控制策略流程图 Fig. 5 Control strategy process
3 对比验证

3.1 计算控制策略结果

 $\small\begin{split} SFC(t) =& {{\rm{C}}_{0,n + 1}}({{\rm{T}}_{{{ch}}}} + {{\rm{T}}_{{{dis}}}}) + {a_{n + 1}}(\int_{{T_{{\rm{ch}}}}} {{P_{s,n + 1}}(t){\rm{d}}t + \int_{{T_{{\rm{dis}}}}} {{P_{s,n}}(t){\rm{d}}t)} } + \\ &{{\rm{b}}_{n + 1}}(\int_{{T_{{\rm{ch}}}}} {{P^2}_{s,n + 1}(t){\rm{d}}t + \int_{{T_{{\rm{dis}}}}} {{P^2}_{s,n}(t){\rm{d}}t} }{\text{，}}\\[-15pt] \end{split}$ (12)

 $\small\begin{split} &SFC({\rm{t}}) = {C_{0,n + 1}}{D_s} + {C_{0,n}}{{D'}_s} + a{P_{La}}+\\ & \quad a{D_{\rm{s}}}\frac{{({R_b} + {R_{bid}})}}{{V_{bid}^2}}[{({P_{sa,n + 1}} - {P_{La}})^2} + R_{eq}^2{(1 - {\alpha _{n + 1}})^2}]+\\ & \quad a{{D'}_s}\frac{{({R_b} + {R_{bid}})}}{{V_{bid}^2}}[{({P_{sa,n}} - {P_{La}})^2} + R_{eq}^2{(1 - {\alpha _n})^2}]+\\ & \quad {b_{n + 1}}{D_s}(P_{sa,n + 1}^2 + \alpha _{n + 1}^2R_{eq}^2) + {b_n}{{D'}_s}(P_{sa,n}^2 + \alpha _n^2R_{eq}^2){\text{，}} \end{split}$ (13)

 $\begin{split} {{\rm{D}}_{\rm{s}}} =& \frac{{{P_{La}} - {P_{sa,n}} + \frac{{({R_b} + {R_{bid}})}}{{V_{bid}^2}}[{{({P_{sa,n}} - {P_{La}})}^2} + R_{eq}^2{{(1 - {\alpha _n})}^2}]}}{ {P_{sa,n + 1}} - {P_{sa,n}} - \frac{{({R_b} + {R_{bid}})}}{{V_{bid}^2}}[({P_{sa,n + 1}} - {P_{sa,n}})({P_{sa,n + 1}} + {P_{sa,n}} - {\rm{2}}PLa)}+\\ &R_{eq}^2({\alpha _{n + 1}} - {\alpha _n})({\alpha _{n + 1}} + {\alpha _n} - {\rm{2}})] {\text{。}}\\[-10pt] \end{split}$ (14)

 ${R_{\rm{eq}}} = \sqrt {\frac{1}{T}\int\limits_T {{{({P_L}({\rm{t}}) - {P_{La}})}^2}} {\rm{d}}t} {\text{。}}$ (15)

 图 6 n台在网柴油机燃油消耗关系图 Fig. 6 Fuel consumption relationship of multiple diesel engines.

 图 7 n+1台在网柴油机燃油消耗关系图 Fig. 7 Fuel consumption relationship of multiple diesel engines
3.2 仿真结果及对比验证

 图 8 运输航行工况下负载功率曲线 Fig. 8 Load power curve under transport sailing conditions

 图 9 引入锂电池组与控制策略的仿真结果 Fig. 9 Simulation results of introducing lithium battery packs and control strategies

 图 10 引入锂电池组与控制策略前后燃油消耗率对比 Fig. 10 Comparison of fuel consumption rate before and after introduction of lithium battery pack and control strategy

 图 11 引入锂电池组与控制策略前后燃油消耗率总量对比 Fig. 11 Comparison of fuel consumption before and after introduction of lithium battery pack and control strategy
4 结　语

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