﻿ 基于反冲响应的深水钻井隔水管张紧力计算方法

1. 中国石油大学(华东)海洋油气装备与安全技术研究中心, 山东青岛 266580 ;
2. 宝鸡石油机械有限责任公司技术中心, 陕西宝鸡 721002 ;
3. 中海油研究总院, 北京 100027

A Calculation Method for the Top Tension of Deepwater Drilling Risers Based on Recoil Response
LIU Xiuquan1, LI Jiayi1, REN Keren2, XU Liangbin3, CHANG Yuanjiang1, SONG Qiang1
1. Center for Offshore Equipment and Safety Technology, China University of Petroleum(Huadong), Qingdao, Shandong, 266580, China ;
2. Technical Center, CNPC Baoji Oilfield Machinery Co. Ltd., Baoji, Shaanxi, 721002, China ;
3. CNOOC Research Institute, Beijing, 100027, China
Abstract: Tension is the key factor in the safe operation of deepwater drilling riser systems, especially for the safe operation of emergency disconnection of the riser system. However, the present calculation methods of the top tension of drilling riser system (including the API theoretical method, a method based on the residual tension at bottom of the drilling riser system and a method based on the maximal hook load during drilling riser system running procedure) do not take riser recoil response into consideration. To address the issue, the tension design criteria based on the riser recoil response was determined. The modified API top tension calculation method and process were proposed and then verified by examples. The results showed that the modified API algorithm could provide reasonable tension calculation for riser systems. The LMRP displacement, the stroke of tensioner and fluctuation range of the effective tension during riser recoil were reduced, thus improving the security of drilling riser system after emergency disconnection and ensuring a safe deepwater drilling riser system emergency disconnection operation.
Key words: deepwater drilling     riser     tension force     recoil response

1 张紧力API算法分析

API算法为隔水管张紧力的基础算法，主要根据隔水管湿重和考虑张紧器失效计算张紧力，保证隔水管系统的稳定性，其计算公式为[4]

 (1)

 (2)

API算法未考虑隔水管系统底部脱离问题，易导致隔水管紧急脱离时无法提起LMRP。目前，常用的解决方法是在最小滑环张力的基础上增加大于LMRP重量的底部残余张力，可表示为：

 (3)

2 考虑反冲响应的隔水管张紧力计算

 图 1张紧器和隔水管运动示意 Fig.1Schematic of tensioner and riser movement

 (4)

 (5)

 (6)

 (7)

 (8)

 (9)

 图 2基于反冲响应的隔水管张紧力计算流程 Fig.2Riser tension calculation flow chart based on recoil response
3 实例分析

 隔水管部件 数量 单根长度/m 单根湿重/kg 伸缩节 1 29.718 7 549.545 0 短节1 1 7.620 3 251.404 8 裸单根 1 18.288 7 813.714 0 浮力单根1 30 18.288 610.545 6 浮力单根2 6 18.288 821.002 0 短节2 1 15.240 6 502.356 0 裸单根 1 18.288 7 813.714 0 LMRP和BOP 1 11.250 177 811.200 0

 图 3隔水管反冲过程中LMRP的位移 Fig.3Displacement response of LMRP during riser recoil
 图 4隔水管反冲过程中张紧器的冲程 Fig.4Tensioner stroke response during riser recoil

 图 5隔水管反冲过程中的有效张力 Fig.5Effective tension range during riser recoil
4 结论

1) 建立了深水钻井隔水管系统反冲响应分析模型，识别了隔水管系统反冲过程中的关键响应参数，并建立了隔水管张紧力设计准则，主要包括隔水管紧急脱离后LMRP与BOP的距离、张紧器冲程和伸缩节冲程、隔水管最大张力、隔水管最小张力、隔水管应力以及隔水管系统的稳定性。

2) 在隔水管张紧力API算法的基础上，进一步考虑隔水管系统紧急脱离时的反冲作用，提出了基于反冲响应的隔水管张紧力计算方法及流程，形成了张紧力的修正API算法，弥补了现有张紧力算法的不足，保证连接作业下隔水管的稳定性以及紧急脱离时隔水管的安全。

3) 修正API算法可以较好地改善反冲过程中的LMRP位移、张紧器冲程以及有效张力波动范围，满足隔水管系统的反冲性能要求，对隔水管系统反冲有较好的控制作用，防止反冲过程中LMRP、BOP、隔水管和张紧器等装备失效。

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#### 文章信息

LIU Xiuquan, LI Jiayi, REN Keren, XU Liangbin, CHANG Yuanjiang, SONG Qiang

A Calculation Method for the Top Tension of Deepwater Drilling Risers Based on Recoil Response

Petroleum Drilling Techniques, 2016, 44(04): 47-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11911/syztjs.201604009