Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants traded in herbal markets of Kahramanmaraş
Seyran Palabaş Uzuna, Cennet Kocab     
a. Department of Forest Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü Imam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey;
b. Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü Imam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
Abstract: Most people in the world still use medicinal plants to treat and prevent disease. In Anatolia, studies have shown that people have used plants for centuries to treat many diseases. Herbal markets play an important role in the supply of medicinal plants and the transmission of cultural heritage. In this study, we investigated the traditional uses of medicinal plants traded in Kahramanmaraş herbal markets. We also analyzed the threats that may arise from the use of medicinal plants and the measures that can be taken to protect these plants. For these purposes, ethnomedicinal data were collected using semistructured and open-ended questionnaires of herbalists and local people. Ethnobotanical indices (e.g., Relative Frequency of Citation, Use Value, Relative Importance, and Informant Consensus Factor) were used to quantify the use and cultural importance of medicinal plants sold at Kahramanmaraş herbal markets. We identified 62 taxa (11 imported) of plants that are used in traditional folk medicines. The top three plant taxa sold per year by herbalists at Kahramanmaraş herbal markets are Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra; 140 kg), Thyme (Thymus sp.; 109 kg), and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua; 106.5 kg). The plant parts and mode of utilization used most are leaves (28 reports) and infusion (36 reports), respectively. The highest ICF value was detected for endocrine system ailments (0.78), and the next highest two values were lymphatic system (0.75) and respiratory system ailments (0.72). We determined that Urtica dioica, G. glabra, Thymus sp., Mentha x piperita have widely traditional uses, with high ethnobotanical index values and use reports. In addition, according to IUCN criteria, 26 of 62 taxa identified in the research are under threat to various degrees on a global scale.
Keywords: Medicinal plants    Herbal market    Use value    Informant consensus factor    Turkey    
1. Introduction

Biodiversity depends not only on the diversity of living organisms and ecosystems but also on biocultural diversity (Maffi and Woodley, 2010). This biocultural diversity is described by herbalism and ethnobotany, which investigate the relationship between humans and plants (Hoffmann, 2003). Medicinal plants were first discovered and used by ancient Indians, Chinese and Europeans. Today, an increased emphasis on healthy living has promoted the use of natural plants sold at herbal markets all over the world. Herbal markets, in turn, not only supply herbal treatment for diseases but also conserve biocultural diversity by transferring traditional knowledge to future generations. Accordingly, several studies have documented traditional knowledge in herbal markets (Bussmann et al., 2007, Bussmann et al., 2016; Idu et al., 2010; Quiroz et al., 2014; Sher et al., 2014; Towns et al., 2014; Randriamiharisoa et al., 2015; Tinitana et al., 2016; Carvalho et al., 2018; Jin et al., 2018; Luo et al., 2018; Franco et al., 2020; Nanogulyan et al., 2020). Ethnopharmacological investigation of herbal markets can also be a useful method to find new herbal recipes, which can be used to treat many diseases that cannot be treated by standard health systems (Mushtaq et al., 2018; Petrakou et al., 2020).

Herbalism has played an important role in the folk medicine of Anatolia since the 12th or 13th century (Erci, 2012; Akbulut, 2015). The floristic richness of Turkey is key to the diversity of its folk medicine and cultural heritage. This floral and cultural diversity can be largely attributed to its geographic position and the traces of different cultures that have lived in this region for centuries. One of the oldest settlements in Anatolia is Kahramanmaraş. Although this city and the surrounding areas have a history of 7000-7500 years, the first traces of human settlements in the region are estimated to be thousands of years older (Gökhan and Kaya, 2008). Kahramanmaraş is largely populated by two ethnic communities (90%) that live in the city center, the Dulkadir Turkmen and a tribe from Doğubayazıt (Dedeoğlu, 1996; Ozan, 2003). The majority of the people of Kahramanmaraş are Dulkadir Turkmen, one of the tribes of the Oğuz. The Turkish tribe from Doğubayazı settled in the region during the 16th century.

The close relationship between Kahramanmaraş people and plants is reflected in the use of medicinal plants. Local people of Kahramanmaraş collect medicinal plants from nature and purchase medicinal plants at herbal markets. One of the most important plants collected from nature is Arum maculatum L., which is called "Andırın (district of Kahramanmaraş) doctor". In addition, the fresh leaves of Arum maculatum are used to make "Tirşik" soup. Although Arum maculatum leaves are quite poisonous when consumed raw, if cooked with appropriate techniques, it has healing properties that treat digestive system disorders, kidney stones, and relieve muscle pain. The leaves of the plant are sold in bazaars in Spring and the plant is celebrated during the annual Tirşik Soup Festival. The fresh shoots of Thymbra spicata L. are sold extensively in bazaars in Spring and its fresh leaves are pickled and consumed in salads, especially for breakfast. This herb also has appetizing properties and is especially effective against digestive system disorders.

Although previous studies have examined the medicinal plant species sold in herbal markets of Kahramanmaraş (Çömlekçioğlu and Karaman, 2008; Akbulut and Özkan, 2016), the use values and importance of the plants have not been quantified. In this study, we document the traditional uses of medicinal plants sold in herbal markets in Kahramanmaraş using ethnobotanical indices such as Use Value (UV), Relative Importance (RI), and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF).

2. Material and methods 2.1. Study area

Kahramanmaraş is located on the foothills of Ahir Mountain between lat 37°45'N and long 34°40'E (Fig. 1) (Atalay, 2008; Polat, 2009). The center of the city is at an elevation of 568 m above sea level. Kahramanmaraş is located within the Mediterranean Biodiversity Hotspot and the transition zone between the Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean phytogeographical regions. Furthermore, it is on the crossroad of the Anatolian diagonal, which is an important center of endemism in Turkey. In addition, Kahramanmaraş contains diverse microclimates and habitats (Özhatay et al., 2011; Uzun et al., 2018). Accordingly, Kahramanmaraş hosts about 2500 flowering plants and ferns and is also rich in endemic species (20%). The vegetation types of Kahramanmaraş change depending on elevation. Generally, Maquis vegetation occurs between 500 and 1000 m, forest vegetation between 1000 and 2000 m, and high mountain steppe vegetation, rich in plant species, are observed in the alpine belt over 2000 m (Zohary, 1973; Kaya, 1996).

Fig. 1 Geographical location of the study area, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.

The city center of Kahramanmaraş reaches high temperatures (over 40 ℃) in the summer months. During these summer months the Yörük Turkmen people move to higher elevations. In the city, private houses are commonly built in the highlands of the Ahir Mountain. The mountain is suitable for fruit production, livestock, viticulture and beekeeping due to its soil structure and climate. People grow various fruit trees, grapes and vegetable plants in their backyards (Koç, 2017). In these plateau regions, local people also prepare food stocks of natural products for the winter months. A local grape variety called "Kabarcık" is prepared as a dessert called "pestil" (fruit leather), which is made from the pulp of grapes dried in sheets (Maraş İl Yıllığı, 1967). Sumac syrup "Akıt", a high-income sugar source for local people, is also made in the summer. In addition to viticulture, olive cultivation is common in the region. Kahramanmaraş is famous worldwide for its red pepper and its ice cream, which contains sahlep and goat milk.

2.2. Ethno-botanical survey and data collection

There are 36 herbal markets in Kahramanmaraş city center. We interviewed herbal market vendors (10) and customers (152) from the ten herbal markets in Kahramanmaraş city with the highest customer density and product quantity. We used semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended interviews with these vendors and customers to obtain information on the vernacular names, preparation methods, uses, and prices of herbal market products. The questionnaire consisted of two parts (Appendix Ⅰ), with the first part including demographic information about the informants (Table 1). All of the herbalists were men. Four herbalists were between the ages of 18-35, five were between 36 and 50 years old, and one was over 51. Five herbalists were primary school graduates, two were secondary school graduates and three were university graduates. Of the 152 customers interviewed, 89 were female and 63 were male. Customer ages included 82 people between 18 and 35; 48 people between 36 and 50, and 22 people 51 years or older. Fifty-one customers graduated from primary school, 31 from secondary school, and 70 from university. The second part of the questionnaire for herbalists consisted of questions such as the following: how do they buy their products, what are the top-selling plant taxa, where or from whom they buy the products they sell, how often do they buy medicinal plants, and how do they get information about plants. For customers, the second part consisted of information about the name of the plant, used plant part, the method of use, and the list of diseases being treated (Appendix Ⅱ).

Table 1 Demographic profile of informants.
Variables Category Herbalist Customer Total number of informants Percentage
Age 18-35 4 82 86 53.1
36-50 5 48 53 32.7
51 and more 1 22 23 14.2
Gender Male 10 63 73 45.1
Female 0 89 89 54.9
Education Primary 5 51 56 34.6
Secondary 2 31 33 20.4
Higher 3 70 73 45.0

Samples were taken from plant materials that informants reported using and then identified in the Herbarium KASOF (Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Faculty of Forestry Herbarium) (Fig. 2). Plant parts, flowers, leaves, seeds, and other materials have been stored in the Herbarium KASOF. Field work was performed in Kahramanmaraş between January and March 2015. The study examines only plant taxa used for medicinal reasons; species were included only if the traders or informants mentioned medicinal uses. Plant products such as resins, oils and juices are not included in this study.

Fig. 2 Richest plant families with their number of taxa.
2.3. Classification of medicinal uses

Ailments were grouped into eleven categories according to the recommended usage. The ailment categories are circulatory system, digestive system, endocrine system, immune system, lymphatic system, central nervous system, reproductive system, skeletal system, respiratory system, urinary system, and skin or integumentary system. Informants did not specify any use of plants for the body muscular system.

2.4. Data analysis 2.4.1. Relative frequency of citation (RFC)

Relative Frequency Citation (RFC) has been calculated to assess the consensus amongst the informants on the reported taxa. This index shows the local importance of each taxa and is given by the frequency of citation (FC, the number of informants mentioning the use of the species) divided by the total number of informants in the survey (N) (Vitalini et al., 2013).

This index varies from 0, when no informants refer to the plant species as useful, to 1, in the case when there are a maximum number of informants that consider a plant taxon useful (Tardío and Pardo-de-Santayana, 2008).

2.4.2. Use value (UV)

The use value is an index the indicates the relative importance of locally known plant taxa, depending on the number of uses recorded for each species. It was calculated by following the formula given by Trotter and Logan (1986).

where U is the number of uses mentioned by each informant for a given taxa and n is the number of informants who cited the plant species.

2.4.3. Relative importance (RI)

Relative importance (RI) determines the importance of a plant species according to the number of uses of each plant taxa and body organ systems treated by it. Relative importance was calculated as follows (Bennett and Prance 2000):

where PH is the number of reported pharmacological properties, Rel PH is the relative number of pharmacological properties, BS is the number of body systems treated, and Rel BS is the relative number of body systems treated.

2.4.4. Informant consensus factor (ICF)

Informant consensus factor expresses the consensus of informants related to the use of plant taxa in treating different use categories (Heinrich et al., 1998; Khan et al., 2015; Yaseen et al., 2015; Mushtaq et al., 2018; Sargın and Büyükcengiz, 2019).

where Nur is the number of uses reported for a disease category and Nt is the number of plant taxa used to treat the disease category.

3. Results and discussion 3.1. Herbal market characteristics

Herbal markets contribute to both the continuity of traditional knowledge and the local economy. In Kahramanmaraş, the average operating age of each herbal market is 29 years, the average number of employees is 1.8, the average number of products in a market is 422, and the average annual turnover of the markets is TL181, 111 (US$73, 622, currency in 2015). In addition, according to the statements of nine herbalists, the average monthly income from an herbal market is TL7, 611 (US$3094). One herbalist did not report his income. In 2015, the per capita income in Turkey was US$11, 014 (Karahan, 2017); in this study, we calculated that the annual income of herbalists was US$37, 000. Some factors have increased the demand for herbal medicines, such as increased consumer preference for traditional medicines and reduced side effects of long-term herbal medicine use (Ekor, 2014). We predict that increased demand for natural medicines and the increased funding for research on herbal medicines will expand the herbal market. In China, a country with megadiversity, the total value of pharmaceutical products has reached US$123.4 billion, of which US$23.71 billion is obtained from the export of medicinal plant material (Ji et al., 2020). According to Luo et al. (2018), the medicinal market in Jianghua has grown considerably in the last 15 years. WHO indicated that, because of the diversity of regulations for traditional medicine products, it is difficult to assess the size of the herbal market across member states; however, available data suggests that the herbal market is substantial (WHO, 2013).

When asked how they gained herbal knowledge, five herbalists stated that they learned from their master, four herbalists were self-taught, and one reported that he had acquired herbal knowledge through a university education. Although many universities in Turkey have a Medicinal and Aromatic Plants program, there is no need for any certificate or qualification to open an herbal market. However, in 2016 the Ministry of Health made it compulsory to acquire a permit from the provincial health directorate of herbalists to sell medicinal plants and products. In addition, the sale of 71 objectionable medicinal plants and preparations has been prohibited in herbal markets, including Scilla bulbs, Digitalis leaves and preparations, Atropa belladonna L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich. and Cannabis sativa L.(MoH, 2016).

Most herbalists interviewed buy processed products. Seven herbalists stated that they purchased their products purified and dried, four purchased powdered and packaged herbs, and two purchased herbs that had not been processed. Most herbalists reported that they bought their products from vendors. However, two herbalists reported that they also collect plants from nature. In this study, approximately 80% (51 taxa) of the 62 ethnobotanical taxa are native plants. In Turkey, the majority of medicinal plants are collected from nature, but a small number of medicinal and aromatic plants are cultivated (e.g., poppy, rose, cumin, anise, thyme, fenugreek, fennel, mint and coriander).

The frequency with which herbalists buy medicinal plants varied. Herbalists reported that they buy medicinal plants once a year (30%), every three months (20%), once a month (20%), once a week (20%), and every six months (10%). When we asked herbalists how they gather knowledge about plants, 44% stated from the books, 25% from the internet, 12% from the family, 6% from vendors, and 13% said none of these options. One herbalist stated that he gathered knowledge from his colleagues and one herbalist graduated from a school that specializes in medicinal plants.

3.2. Medicinal plant diversity

Our interviews of herbalists and customers from 10 herbal markets in the Kahramanmaraş city center identified ethnobotanical usage of 62 plant taxa belonging to 35 families. Two taxa belong to Pteridophyta and all others to Anthophyta (Spermatophyta). Among plant families, Lamiaceae had the highest number of taxa (7) followed by Asteraceae (6), Fabaceae and Rosaceae (each had 4), Apiaceae (3), and Cupressaceae, Anacardiaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Rhamnaceae, Solanaceae and Zingiberidaceae (each had 2). The following families have one taxon: Aspleniaceae, Equisteaceae, Boraginaceae, Eleagnaceae, Ericaceae, Hypericaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Nitrariaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Piperaceae, Portulacaceae, Lythraceae, Ranunculaceae, Santalaceae, Theaceae, Tiliaceae, Cannabaceae, Urticaceae, Verbenaceae and Zygophyllaceae. These findings are similar to a study conducted in the southern Turkish province of Adana (Akbulut, 2015) that found the most common medicinal plants were distributed in four families (Lamiaceae, 7; Fabaceae, 6; Rosaceae, 4; and Asteraceae, 4 taxa). We also found that 8 of the 10 most sold taxa annually are indigenous plants. The top four (Licorice, Thyme, Carob and Mint) taxa traded accounted for more than 65% of the total sales volume. Previous research from herbal markets in northern Peru found that native species account for 50% of all sales, whereas 16 exotic plant species contribute to more than a quarter of all sold materials (Bussmann et al., 2007). Bussmann et al. (2016) reported that, while 61% of the plants sold in Bolivian plant markets are native species, 28.8% of plants are introduced. After interviewing 214 herbalists and 933 customers in 24 provinces in Turkey, Akbulut and Bayramoglu (2013) determined that 88% of plants sold in herbal shops are native, whereas 12% are exotics. Our results are similar to this study (51 native taxa and 11 exotic taxa). Turkey exports medicinal and aromatic plants to approximately 100 countries throughout the world, ranking 18th among countries that export these products (Keykubat, 2016).

Kahramanmaraş is an important city that has preserved its cultural heritage. In addition to many Geographical Indication (GI) local products such as tarhana, ice cream, red pepper and tirşik (Dayısoylu et al., 2017), many herbal products are currently waiting to be certificated. Cultural diversity and floristic richness are the main indicators of the existence of rich traditional medicine (Yeşilada, 2002). The top-selling plants in herbal markets suggest that cultural and regional factors play a role developing traditional medicine in Kahramanmaraş. The city is located at the eastern part of the Mediterranean region and has very high summer temperatures. At the same time, the extremely rich cuisine of Kahramanmaraş is characterized by dishes that are very spicy and oily. This may explain why local people consume high amounts of dyspeptic medicinal plants such as licorice, mint, and thyme.

3.3. Medicinal plant parts used and mode of preparation

The annual average weight for the 10 top-selling plant taxa in Kahramanmaraş herbal markets are as follows: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.), 140 kg; Thyme (Thymus sp.), 109 kg; Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.), 106.5 kg; Mint (Mentha x piperita L.), 105 kg; Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), 82.5 kg; Linden (Tilia platyphyllos Scop.), 76 kg; Senna (Senna alexandrina Mill.), 34.5 kg; Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), 28.5 kg; Sage-Mountain tea (Salvia officinalis L.), 28.5 kg; and Daisy (Matricaria chamomilla L.), 16.5 kg. Licorice is the most sold plant species (140 kg per year) in Kahramanmaraş herbal markets. During the summer licorice is consumed extensively because it quenches thirst and is good for stomach ailments. In addition, it is widely used throughout Ramadan, the Muslim holy month during which fasting is observed, because of its positive effects on an empty stomach. In Kahramanmaraş, licorice syrup is sold in bottles at bazaars and by street vendors. The second best-selling plant in the herbal markets is thyme (109 kg per year). Thyme is consumed as a spice by local people, and in the winter a thyme tea called "zahter" is widely consumed. Zahter tea is good for stomachaches, headaches and colds. Thyme is one of the main ingredients of Maraş Tarhana (soup with dried yoghurt), which is produced in large quantities in the province in summer and is an indispensable soup for the winter months. Therefore, the sale of thyme is high in both summer and winter. Furthermore, molasses made by local people from the cones of Juniperus drupacea Labill. is used for food and medicinal purposes. This molasses is especially effective against diseases such as asthma and bronchitis. Because local people generally collect cones independently, herbalists do not sell large amounts of this plant.

Customers reported the uses of 94 plant parts belonging to 62 plant taxa. The part of the plant most frequently cited by customers is leaves (30%), followed by fruits (22%), roots (13%), seeds (11%), flowers (10%), shoots (8%), aerial parts (4%) and the bark (2%), respectively (Fig. 3). The most commonly used plant parts reported by previous ethnobotanical studies in Turkey have varied. Our results are similar to those of Dalar et al. (2018), which reported that the most common plant parts used by customers in Ağrı province were leaves. Our results are also similar to the study of Uzun and Kaya (2016) that showed that leaves and fruits are the two most used plant parts.

Fig. 3 The percentage of plant parts used.

Customers reported using 12 different methods to treat ailments with plant parts. Of these, the three most commonly used preparation methods were infusion (37%), decoction (24%), and powder (18%) (Fig. 4). Infusions and decoctions are generally prepared with plant leaves; therefore, these results are consistent with our finding that the most commonly used plant parts are leaves. This finding supports those of Polat (2018), which found that the two most commonly used methods for medicinal plant preparation in Bingöl were infusion (37%) and decoction (33%).

Fig. 4 The percentage of preparation methods.

We also determined that 10 plants are highly versatile (see bolded taxa in Table 2). Plant species with more than 6 use reports include Urtica dioica L., Elaeagnus angustifolia L., Curcuma longa L., Matricaria chamomilla, Apium graveolens L., Foeniculum vulgare, Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Juglans regia L., and Nigella sativa L.

Table 2 Medicinal plants traded in Kahramanmaraş herbal markets.
Botanical Names Family Vernacular Names Threat Category Parts used Preparation Form Medicinal Uses FC RFC UV RI
Asplenium ceterach L. Aspleniaceae Altın otu Aerial parts Infusion Cough and expectorant, gas troubles 17 0.11 0.18 25.00
Equisetum arvense L. Equisetaceae Boğumlu ot Stem and Leaves Infusion, Bath Diuretic, wounds, regulates menses 28 0.18 0.11 29.17
Juniperus communis L. Cupressaceae Ardıç LC Cones Decoction, Oil Halitosis, hemorrhoids, skin diseases 15 0.10 0.20 29.17
Juniperus drupacea Labill. Cupressaceae Andız LC Cones Molasses, Infusion Asthma, bronchitis, urinary burning, skin diseases 29 0.19 0.14 34.72
Rhus coriaria L. Anacardiaceae Sumak VU Leaves, Fruits Powder, Decoction Sore throat, diarrhea, wound healing 55 0.36 0.05 29.17
Pistacia terebinthus L. Anacardiaceae Menengiç LC Fruits, Roots Powder, Decoction Diuretic, expectorant 53 0.35 0.04 19.44
Apium graveolens L. Apiaceae Kereviz LC Leaves, Roots Decoction Urinary problems, liver problems, cough, bronchitis, enlarged prostate gland, hypertension 22 0.14 0.27 50.00
Carum carvi L. Apiaceae Kimyon Fruits Powder Gas troubles, stomach gas, regulates menses, galactagogues 72 0.47 0.06 34.72
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Apiaceae Rezene Roots, Leaves, Seeds Decoction, Powder Galactagogues, gas troubles, intestinal problems, kidney stones, wounds, as heart tonic 67 0.44 0.09 54.17
Achillea millefolium L. Asteraceae Civan perçemi LC Leaves, Flowers Infusion Female sexual disorders, hemorrhoids, blood purification, anemia, wounds, stomach and intestinal disorders 73 0.48 0.08 54.17
Artemisia absinthium L. Asteraceae Pelin otu Flowering shoots Infusion Expel worms from digestive tract, stomach tonic 12 0.08 0.17 15.28
Cyanus segetum Hill Asteraceae Gelintacı Flowers, Leaves Infusion Applied on head skin to heal wounds, diarrhea, expectorant, urinary problems 22 0.14 0.23 44.44
Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae Hindiba Flowering shoots Decoction. Infusion Heart diseases, liver disorders, cough, bronchitis, rheumatism, indigestion 41 0.27 0.15 54.17
Matricaria chamomilla L. Asteraceae Mayıs papatyası Flowers Infusion, Powder, Bath Insomnia, stress, rheumatism, sore throat, stomachache, wounds, anemia 93 0.61 0.08 59.72
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Asteraceae Deve dikeni Flowering shoots Infusion, Powder Kidney stones, urine problems, rheumatism 32 0.21 0.09 25.00
Alkanna tinctoria L. Boraginaceae Havaciva Roots Infusion Constipation, fever, wounds 27 0.18 0.11 29.17
Celtis australis L. Cannabaceae Çitlembik LC Leaves, Fruits Infusion, Paste Diarrhea, cough and expectorant, rheumatism 57 0.38 0.07 34.72
Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Elaegnaceae İğde Fruits, Flowers, Leaves Eaten raw, Powder Diarrhea, urinary problems, cough, sore throat, infertility, nervous disorders, sexual disorders 43 0.28 0.16 63.89
Erica arborea L. Erıcaceae Funda LC Flowering shoots, Leaves Infusion Urinary problems 18 0.12 0.06 9.72
aSenna alexandrina Mill. Fabaceae Sinameki LC Leaves Infusion Purgative, rheumatism 50 0.33 0.04 19.44
Ceratonia siliqua L. Fabaceae Keçiboynuzu LC Flowering shoots, Leaves, Bark and Fruit Powder, Decoction Urinary problems, anemia, sexual disorders 93 0.61 0.03 29.17
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Fabaceae Meyan Roots Decoction Ulcer, laxative, antitussive, respiratory disorders 50 0.33 0.08 30.56
Ononis spinosa L. Fabaceae Kayışkıran Roots Infusion Kidney stones, wounds 29 0.19 0.07 19.44
Hypericum perforatum L. Hypericaceae Kantoron Flowers Infusion, Oil Fever, skin burns, Abnormal menstrual cycle, nervous system disorders 103 0.68 0.04 38.89
Juglans regia L. Juglandaceae Ceviz LC Fruit, Leaves Infusion Skin diseases, to purify blood, anemia, diabetes, cholesterol, bone weakness 145 0.95 0.04 50.00
(aLavandula spica L.) Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Lamiaceae Lavanta Flowers Infusion Stomach gas, stomachache, nervous disorders 32 0.21 0.09 25.00
Melissa officinalis L. Lamiaceae Oğul otu Leaves Infusion Gas troubles, nervous disorders, irregular heart beat 78 0.51 0.04 29.17
Mentha x piperita L. Lamiaceae Nane Leaves Infusion, Decoction Stomachache, colds, headache, halitosis 148 0.97 0.03 34.72
Rosmanirus officinalis L. Lamiaceae Biberiye Leaves, Flowering shoots Infusion Lung disease, headache, nervous disorders, skin pimples 68 0.45 0.06 34.72
Salvia officinalis L. Lamiaceae Adaçayı Leaves Infusion Carminative, indigestive, tooth and throat inflammation, skin diseases, rheumatism 126 0.83 0.04 44.44
Thymus sp. Lamiaceae Kekik Leaves Infusion Stomachache and headache, indigestive, cough, bronchitis, nervous disorders 128 0.84 0.04 40.28
Vitex agnus-castus L. Lamiaceae Hayıt DD Leaves, Fruits, Seeds Infusion, Powder Regulates menses, diuretic, gas troubles 65 0.43 0.05 29.17
aCinnamomum verum J.Presl Lauraceae Tarçın Bark Powder, Infusion, Decoction Gas troubles, antiseptic, respiratory disorders 113 0.74 0.03 29.17
Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae Defne LC Leaves, Fruits Decoction Diuretic, rheumatism, digestive, colds 52 0.34 0.08 38.89
Linum usitatissimum L. Linaceae Keten tohumu Seeds Powder, Decoction Cough, asthma, purgative, wounds 40 0.26 0.10 30.56
Punica granatum L. Lythraceae Nar LC Roots, Seeds, Flowers Powder, Decoction Hemorrhoids, intestinal worms, wound and skin diseases 47 0.31 0.06 25.00
Ficus carica L. Moraceae Yemiş LC Fruit, Leaves Unprocessed fruit, Latex Food, Hemorrhoids, laxative, latex used in skin diseases, aphrodisiac 82 0.54 0.05 34.72
aMorus alba L. Moraceae Dut Fruit, Leaves Unprocessed fruit, Decoction, Molasses Sore throat, anemia, food 53 0.35 0.04 19.44
aEucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Myrtaceae Ökaliptus NT Leaves Infusion, Oil Hemorrhoids, respiratory disorders, rheumatism 22 0.14 0.14 29.17
Myrtus communis L. Myrtaceae Murt LC Leaves and Fruits Infusion, Oil, Powder Diarrhea, skin disorders, wounds, eczema, heart diseases 44 0.29 0.11 40.28
Peganum harmala L. Nitrariaceae Üzerlik Seeds, Roots Infusion, Paste Hemorrhoids, eczema, nervous disorders, intestinal worms 54 0.36 0.07 34.72
Fumaria officinalis L. Papaveraceae Şahtere Whole plant Decoction Liver disorders, diabetes 8 0.05 0.25 19.44
Plantago major L. Plantaginaceae Damar otu LC Flowers Infusion, Paste Asthma, sore throat, wounds, constipation 68 0.45 0.06 38.89
aPiper nigrum L. Piperaceae Karabiber Seeds Decoction, Powder Toothache, stomachache, hyperuricemia, rheumatism, 125 0.82 0.03 38.89
Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacaceae Semiz otu, Soğukluk Shoots Decoction Food, intestinal disorders 74 0.49 0.01 9.72
Nigella sativa L. Ranunculaceae Çörekotu Seeds Smoke, Decoction Flu, asthma, urinary diseases, diabetes, menorrhagia, food 65 0.43 0.06 44.44
Frangula alnus Miller. Rhamnaceae Barut ağacı LC Bark of brunches Decoction Purgative 23 0.15 0.04 9.72
a Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Rhamnaceae Hünnap LC Fruit, Leaves Infusion Cough and expectorant, diarrhea, blood purification, as heart tonic 17 0.11 0.29 44.44
Crataegus orientalis L. Rosaceae Alıç Fruit, Leaves Vinegar, Infusion Controls blood pressure and diabetes, irregular heartbeat, nervous system disorders, diarrhea 72 0.47 0.07 44.44
Cerasus mahaleb L. Rosaceae Mahlep LC Seeds Powder Expectorant, control blood glucose, aphrodisiac, stomach gas, diabetes 22 0.14 0.23 44.44
Mespilus germanica L. Rosaceae Muşmula LC Fruit, Leaves, Seeds Infusion, Leaves paste Stomach and intestinal disorders, diarrhea, flu and cold 34 0.22 0.12 30.56
Rosa canina L. Rosaceae Kuşburnu Fruits Infusion, Marmalade Cold, diuretic, anemia, rheumatism 128 0.84 0.03 34.72
Viscum album L. Santalaceae Ökse otu Leaves, Shoots, Fruits Infusion, Paste Cholesterol lowering, rheumatism, wounds, anticancer 33 0.22 0.12 38.89
aCapsicum annuum L. Solanaceae Pul biber LC Fruits Powder Cold, rheumatism, analgesic 83 0.55 0.04 29.17
Mandragora autumnalis Bertol. Solanaceae Kan kurutan LC Roots, Seeds Infusion Asthma, cough, wounds, eczema 21 0.14 0.19 34.72
aCamellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Theaceae Çay Leaves Infusion Diuretic 77 0.51 0.01 9.72
Tilia platyphyllos Scop. Tiliaceae Ihlamur LC Flowers, Leaves Decoction Cold, sedative, insomnia 142 0.93 0.02 25.00
Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae Isırgan LC Whole plant Infusion, Decoction Expectorant, hair care, anti-inflammatory, wounds, cancer, diabetes, hemorrhoids, rheumatism, aphrodisiac 61 0.40 0.15 83.33
Vitis vinifera L. Vitaceae Asma LC Fruits, Leaves Unprocessed fruit, Molasses Laxative, diuretic, diarrhea, wounds 35 0.23 0.11 34.72
aCurcuma longa L. Zingiberaceae Zerdeçal DD Roots Decoction, Powder Heal pimples and wounds, stomachache, fever, cough, constipation, anemia, anticancer, 95 0.63 0.07 59.72
aZingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae Zencefil DD Roots Powder, Decoction Cough, pneumonia, help digestion, gastritis, control blood pressure 103 0.68 0.05 40.28
Tribulus terrestris L. Zygophyllaceae Deve Çökerten Roots and Shoots Decoction Hemorrhoids, renal disorders 42 0.28 0.05 19.44
a Exotic plant taxa, not native for the Flora of Turkey.
3.4. Salient ailments and indices

Herbal remedies are used for many ailments in Turkey. Medicinal plants are most frequently used to treat the respiratory system (96 of the use reports), digestive system (82), skin or integumentary system (64), and urinary system (59). According to recent reports, air quality in Kahramanmaraş exceeds pollution limits set by both the WHO and EU. Also Turkish air pollution indices are 31% higher than those in Europe (UCTEA, 2019). Pollution can lead to increased respiratory disorders and allergic reactions. The use reports of other diseases treated are noted in Table 3. No customers mentioned a plant used for the body muscular system. However, customers reported that several body systems are treated with a highly diverse set of plant taxa. For instance, the plants used treat the digestive system (60 plant taxa), respiratory system (41 taxa), skin or integumentary system (23 taxa), and skeletal and urinary system (each 17 taxa) are the most diverse.

Table 3 Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) for the categorized ailments.
No Ailment Category Number of Use Report Number of taxa ICF
1 Circulatory system 17 9 0.50
2 Digestive system 81 43 0.48
3 Endocrine system 46 11 0.78
4 Immune system 20 14 0.32
5 Lympatic system 9 3 0.75
6 Body's muscular system 0 0 0.00
7 Nervous system 28 14 0.52
8 Reproductive system 21 11 0.50
9 Skeletal system 44 17 0.63
10 Respiratory system 96 28 0.72
11 Urinary system 58 19 0.68
12 Skin or Integumentary system 64 22 0.67

The UV value represents the relative importance of plant species according to the number of uses reported for each species. In the present study, UV values ranged from 0.01 to 0.29. The highest UV value was determined for Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (0.29). For this taxon, 17 informants reported 5 different pharmacological properties. The lowest UV value was recorded for Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (0.01); 77 informants reported that this taxon is used for only for one pharmacological property.

RFC, which represents the relative importance of plant species, depends on the number of informants that report the use of the species. In the present study, RFC values ranged from 0.97 to 0.05. The highest RFC was found for Mentha x piperita. Other taxa with high RFC values include Juglans regia (0.95), Tilia platyphyllos (0.93), Rosa canina L. (0.84), and Thymus sp. (0.84). Mentha x piperita is widely used because of its medicinal properties as well as aromatic scent both in Turkey and the world. In addition to its widespread use as a spice in Kahramanmaraş, it is frequently used to prevent stomachaches, colds, and halitosis.

Relative Importance Index (RI) was calculated based on relative pharmacological effects and relative body systems treated by a plant species. RI values ranged from 83.33 to 9.72. The plant with the highest RI value was Urtica dioica. Informants reported that this plant species is used to treat nine different ailments belonging to eight body systems. U. dioica is widely used both in Kahramanmaraş and surrounding provinces. Although many uses of U. dioica were reported by customers, the most commonly mentioned uses were as an expectorant, aphrodisiac, and anticarcinogen. High RI values were also determined for Elaeagnus angustifolia (63.89), Curcuma longa (59.72) and Matricaria chamomilla (59.72).

This study is based on a total of 485 disease reports that belong to 11 disease groups. High ICF values indicate that there is a consensus among informants about plants used for a particular disease group. The highest ICF value was detected in endocrine system ailments (0.78), and the next two highest values were for lymphatic system (0.75) and respiratory system ailments (0.72) (Table 3). When conducting surveys of customers, we found that the same medicinal plants are used to treat diabetes and cholesterol, and to increase breast milk. Therefore, we were not surprised to find the highest ICF values for endocrine system disorders. Dalar et al. (2018) found the highest ICF values for similar ailment categories (cancer-lymphatic system 0.93; diabetes-endocrine system 0.92 and respiratory system 0.92) in the Ağrı region.

3.5. Threats and conservation challenges

According to the IUCN, approximately 40-45% of the global medicinal plant flora is under threat to various degrees (Allen et al., 2014). In the present study, we identified 26 medicinal and aromatic plants used in Kahramanmaraş that are under threat on a global scale (24 taxa LC, 1 taxon NT and 1 taxon VU). Three taxa have been designated Data Deficient (DD) because there is not enough data on their area of occupancy. Twenty threatened taxa are either trees or shrubs, and among these, Rhus coriaria L. is the one with the highest threat category (VU). Other threatened woody taxa with versatile uses as medicinal and aromatic plants are Juglans regia, Laurus nobilis L. and Juniperus drupacea. The fruity shoot and leaves of Rhus coriaria are cut for medicinal and aromatic purposes. The use of this taxon, which is native to the Mediterranean basin and grows widely in almost all soil conditions in nature, does not pose a serious threat to the continuity of the plant. Another threatened woody taxon, J. regia (RI: 50.00), is widely cultivated throughout the country. L. nobilis (RI: 38.89) has been used since ancient Greece and Rome, and today has an important place in Turkey's foreign trade (MAF, 2016). It covers an area of approximately 131, 862 ha and has an average production potential of 12.2 tons a year (Ok and Tengiz, 2018). Laurel leaf production is regulated according to both the principles of the rescript, numbered 302 of the General Directorate of Forestry and the annual production programs. According to the IUCN, J. drupacea (RI: 34.72), a Mediterranean tertiary relict, has a stable population on a global scale (Gardner, 2013). Mature fallen cones are collected to make molasses from these trees, which poses no threat to the species. The threatened herbaceous taxa Capsicum annuum L. and Apium graveolens are cultivated, and are therefore not threatened by intensive use as medicinal and aromatic plants.

Some traded and threatened herbaceous plants, such as Achillea millefolium, Plantago major L. and Urtica dioica, are collected directly from the nature. U. dioica and A. millefolium are among the 10 plants with the most versatile use (RI: 83.33 and 59.72 respectively). In addition, U. dioica is among the plants with the highest consumption level. It is essential to do more research on these extensively used herbaceous plants and to identify and manage their critical habitats. Ecological studies should be brought to the forefront to protect the traditionally used medicinal plants and their in-situ conservation. Additionally, the sustainable use of these plants requires supplementing wild plant collection with an increased number of medicinal and aromatic plant gardens throughout the country. Our interviews revealed that people have limited information about both the highly consumed plants and the plants with high ethnobotanical index values (UV, RI, RFC). Both customers and herbalists have limited information about medicinal plants. Given the demand for herbal medicine, the low educational level of herbalists is a major concern. Other studies performed in Turkey by Başer et al. (1986), Adıgüzel and Kızılaslan (2016), Akbulut (2015) reported that most herbalists in have low educational levels. Our interviews also indicated that only one herbalist received a university education related to medicinal and aromatic plants; in contrast, the other herbalists learned from masters or were self-taught. Some herbalists stated that they do not have sufficient knowledge about the collection, drying, and offering of plants for sale. Also, storage methods of plants varied among herbal markets. It was not possible to discover whether products were collected by herbalists or vendors. Information on collection time and expiry date of the products were not included on the product labels. We recommend that provincial health directorates conduct regular detailed inspections of herbal markets to ameliorate these deficiencies. In addition, brochures or booklets containing important, easy-to-understand information about plants should be prepared and distributed to both herbalists and customers. These materials should describe the characteristics of the plant, which disease it is good for, as well as when it should not be used. Workshops or informative meetings should be organized to increase the confidence and self-esteem of herbalists, supplement their current knowledge, and provide information about the laws.

It is of great importance to record local traditional ecological information, which is defined as the knowledge, practices, and beliefs that arise over time from the relationship between people and their environment (Berkes et al., 2000). Scientific ethnobotanical research and national/international projects that record traditional ecological knowledge should be continued and disseminated. For this purpose, in 2017 the Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry launched the "Project of Recording Traditional Information Based on Biodiversity". This project compiles previous scientific publications and interviews that record traditional information on plant diversity in Turkey. Importantly, interviews focus on elderly populations that live in villages greatly influenced by geographical features, historical background, and cultural heritage. The project aims to complete field studies in all provinces by 2023 (MAF, 2020). In order to protect the natural habitats and traditional uses of medicinal plants, developmental agencies, universities, forest regional directorates, and local governments should collaborate on research projects.

4. Conclusions

The results of the study are consistent with the use of medicinal plants by local people. The plants that are frequently used by the local people have always been in the top ranks in both sales and ethnobotanical indices. Results identified 62 plant taxa traded in herbal markets of Kahramanmaraş, 11 of which are imported. Some imported plants were even among the top 10 taxa sold by herbalists (such as Zingiber officinale, Senna alexandrina). We found that medicinal plants were most commonly used to treat the digestive system. Of the 62 plant taxa evaluated in the study, 43 were used for digestive system ailments. This study is the first to use ethnobotanical indices to evaluate data on herbal markets and the uses of medicinal plants by local people in Kahramanmaraş city. The use of these ethnobotanical indices (e.g., UV, RI, RFC, and ICF) helped identify important plant species that have traditional uses previously unknown to researchers. The average ICF value was high (0.60), which indicates that the participants agreed on medicinal plants used for the ailments.

In recent years, environmental challenges and modern diseases have diversified the reasons people use medicinal plants, which has led to increased consumption. This increased demand brings with it both overuse and misuse due to lack of knowledge. Therefore, people should be informed about the correct usage and dosage of medicinal plants and, most importantly, try to spread the awareness that these are exhaustible resources. Creating this awareness is especially important for younger generations both in terms of sustainable use of plants and protection of traditional knowledge. This study was carried out to protect the information about the local uses of plant species, to transfer them to future generations, and to provide preliminary information for future studies.

Author contributions

Seyran Palabaş Uzun designed the study, performed botanical identification of plant species, data analysis and writing of the manuscript. Cennet Koca performed traditional medicinal plants surveys and preparation of herbarium samples.

Declaration of competing interest

The authors hereby declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Appendix Ⅰ.

First Part.

1. Age of herbalist

2. Gender of herbalist

3. Education level of herbalist

4. How they obtained the knowledge of herbalism

5. Active years at herbal market, number of employees, number of products, annual turnover

6. Monthly earnings of herbalist

Second Part.

7. How they buy their products?

8. Top-selling plant species.

9. Where or from whom they buy the products they sell?

10. How often they buy medicinal plants?

11. How they get information about plants?

Appendix Ⅱ.

Date: -- Informants name: -- Age: --

1. Local name of plant: -- 2. Part of plant: -- 3. Diseases being treated: -- 5. How to use it (powder, pulp, tea, etc.) -- Internal □ External □

Adıgüzel F., Kızılaslan N., 2016. Istanbul ilinde tıbbi aromatik ve baharat bitkileri satışı yapan aktarların yapısal özellikleri ve mevzuat hakkındaki görüşleri. Anadolu J. Agric. Sci, 31: 40-59. DOI:10.7161/anajas.2016.31.1.40-59
Akbulut S., 2015. Differences in the traditional use of wild plants between rural and urban areas: the sample of Adana. Stud. Ethno-Med, 9: 141-150. DOI:10.1080/09735070.2015.11905430
Akbulut S., Bayramoglu M.M., 2013. The trade and use of some medical and aromatic herbs in Turkey. Stud. Ethno-Med, 7: 67-77. DOI:10.1080/09735070.2013.11886446
Akbulut S., Özkan Z.C., 2016. Herbalist-Customer profile in medicinal and aromatic herbs trade: a case study of Kahramanmaraş Turkey. Kastamonu Univ. J. For. Fac, 16: 246-252.
Allen, D., Bilz, M., Leaman, D. J., et al., 2014. European Red List of Medicinal Plants. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.
Atalay, B., 2008. Maraştarihi ve coǧrafyası. Kahramanmaraş: ukde yayınları. Available from:
Başer, K. H. C., Honda, G., Miki, W., 1986. Türkiye'de Aktarlar ve Bitkisel Droglar, vol. 2. Islam Kültürü Araştırmaları Serisi, Ankara.
Bennett B.C., Prance G.T., 2000. Introduced plants in the indigenous pharmacopoeia of Northern South America. Econ. Bot, 54: 90-102. DOI:10.1007/BF02866603
Berkes F., Colding J., Folke C., 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecol. Appl, 10: 1251-1262. DOI:10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[1251:ROTEKA]2.0.CO;2
Bussmann R.W., Paniagua Zambrana N.Y., Moya Huanca L.A., et al, 2016. Changing markets e medicinal plants in the markets of La paz and El alto, Bolivia. J. Ethnopharmacol, 193: 76-95. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.074
Bussmann R.W., Sharon D., Vandebroek I., et al, 2007. Health for sale: the medicinal plant markets in Trujillo and Chiclayo, Northern Peru. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed, 3: 37. DOI:10.1186/1746-4269-3-37
Carvalho A. C. B., Lana T. N., Perfeito J. P. S., et al, 2018. The Brazilian market of herbal medicinal products and the impacts of the new legislation on traditional medicines. J. Ethnopharmacol, 212: 29-35. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2017.09.040
Çömlekçioǧlu N., Karaman Ş., 2008. Kahramanmaras şehir merkezindeki aktarlarda bulunan tıbbi bitkiler. KSU J. Sci. Eng, 11: 23-32.
Dalar A., Mukemre M., Unal M., et al, 2018. Traditional medicinal plants of Aǧrı province Turkey. J. Ethnopharmacol, 226: 56-72. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2018.08.004
Dayısoylu S., Yörükoglu T., Ançel T., 2017. The products with geographical indication of KahramanmaraşProvince and its potentials. KSU J. Nat. Sci, 20: 80-88.
Dedeoǧlu, M., 1996. Dünden Bugüne Kahramanmaraş(1. Baskı). S. 180. Ankara.
Ekor F., 2014. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front. Pharmacol, 4: 177. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2013.00177
Erci, B., 2012. In: Arup Bhattacharya, Dr (Ed. ), Medical Herbalism and Frequency of Use, A Compendium of Essays on Alternative Therapy. InTech, ISBN 978-953- 307-863-2.
Franco M. F., Chaw L. L., Bakar N., et al, 2020. Socialising over fruits and vegetables: the biocultural importance of an open-air market in Bandar Seri Begawan. Brunei Darussalam. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed, 16: 6. DOI:10.1186/s13002-020-0356-6
Gardner, M., 2013. Juniperus drupacea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e. T30311A2792553.
Gökhan, İ., Kaya, S., 2008. İlkçağgdan Dulkadirlilere Kadar Maraş(1. Baskı). Kahramanmaraş.
Heinrich M., Ankli A., Frei B., et al, 1998. Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers' consensus and cultural importance. Soc. Sci. Med, 47: 1859-1871. DOI:10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00181-6
Hoffmann, D., 2003. Medical Herbalism: the Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Healing Arts Press, Rochester, Vt, p. 666.
Idu M.D., Erhabor J.O., Efijuemue H.M., 2010. Documentation on medicinal plants sold in markets in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Trop. J. Pharmaceut. Res, 9: 110-118.
İl Yıllıǧı, Maraş, 1967. Dönmez Ofset, Ankara.
Ji, Y., Fang, Q., Liu, S., et al., 2020. Herbal medicinal markets in China: an ethnobotanical survey. In: Khasim, S. M., Long, C., Thammasiri, K., Lutken, H. (Eds. ), 2020. Medicinal Plants: Biodiversity, Sustainable Utilization and Conservation. Springer, Singapore.
Jin B., Liu Y., Luo B., et al, 2018. Ethnobotanical survey of plant species for herbal tea in a Yao autonomous county (Jianghua, China): results of a 2-year study of traditional medicinal markets on the Dragon Boat Festival. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed, 14: 58. DOI:10.1186/s13002-018-0257-0
Karahan H., 2017. Bir Büyüme Muhasebesi: Türkiye'de kişi başına gelir gelişiminin emek dinamikleri. Financ. Polit. Econ. Rev, 54: 65-73.
Kaya, F., 1996. Kahramanmaraş Ilinin Iklim Özellikleri, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, K. S. Ü Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Türkiye Coǧrafyası Ana Bilim Dalı.
Keykubat, B., 2016. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and Good Life. Izmir Commodity Exchange Report, p. 21.
Khan M.P.Z., Ahmad M., Zafar M., et al, 2015. Ethnomedicinal uses of edible wild fruits (EWFs) in Swat Valley, Northern Pakistan. J. Ethnopharmacol, 173: 191-203. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.07.029
Koç, K., 2017. Baǧ Evi, Baǧ Hayatı. Kahramanmaraş Ansiklopedisi.
Luo B., Liu Y., Liu B., et al, 2018. Yao herbal medicinal market during the dragon boat festival in Jianghua county, China. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed, 14: 61. DOI:10.1186/s13002-018-0260-5
MAF, 2016. Republic of Turkey Ministry of agriculture and Forestry, action plan of bay laurel (2016-2020). (Accessed 28 October 2020).
MAF, 2020. Republic of Turkey Ministry of agriculture and Forestry, noah's ark national biodiversity database. (Accessed 24 August 2020).
Maffi, L., Woodley, E., 2010. Biocultural Diversity Conservation. A Global Sourcebook, London: Earthscan, p. 304.
MoH, 2016. Ministry of health, Republic of Turkey. (Accessed 26 June 2020).
Mushtaq A., Muhammad Z., Nuzba S., et al, 2018. Ethnobotanical importance of medicinal plants traded in herbal markets of Rawalpindi-Pakistan. J. Herb. Med, 11: 78-89. DOI:10.1016/j.hermed.2017.10.001
Nanogulyan S., Zakaryan N., Kartashyan N., et al, 2020. Wild plants and fungi sold in the markets of Yerevan (Armenia). J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed, 16: 26. DOI:10.1186/s13002-020-00375-3
Ok K., Tengiz Y. Z., 2018. Türkiye'de odun dışı orman ürünlerinin yönetimi. KSU J. Agric. Nat, 21: 457-471.
Ozan, E., 2003. Cumhuriyetin 80. Yılında Kahramanmaraş'ın Ekonomisi Ve Sosyal Alt Yapısı(1. Baskı). Yaşar Ofset Matbaacılık, Kahramanmaraş.
Özhatay, N., Koçyiǧit, M., Demirci, S., 2011. "Başkonuş Daǧı (Kahramanmara) Korumada Öncelikli Alanları; Nadir Ve Endemik Türleri" Başkonuş Orman Işletme Şefliǧi Fonksiyonel Amenajman Planına Nadir Bitkilerin Entegrasyonu Çalışması Raporu S, vol. 104.
Petrakou K., Iatrou G., Lamari N.F., 2020. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants traded in herbal markets in the Peloponnisos, Greece. J. Herb. Med, 19: 100305. DOI:10.1016/j.hermed.2019.100305
Polat, C., 2009. Maraş Bibliyografyası. Kahramanmaraş. UKDE Yayınları.
Polat R., 2018. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in Bingöl (City center)(Turkey). J. Herb. Med, 16: 100211. DOI:10.1016/j.hermed.2018.01.007
Quiroz D., Towns A., Legba S. I., et al, 2014. Quantifying the domestic market in herbal medicine in Benin, West Africa. J. Ethnopharmacol, 151: 1100-1108. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.019
Randriamiharisoa M.N., Kuhlman A.R., Jeannoda V., et al, 2015. Medicinal plants sold in the markets of Antananarivo, Madagascar. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed, 11: 60. DOI:10.1186/s13002-015-0046-y
Sargın S. A., Büyükcengiz M., 2019. Plants used in ethnomedicinal practices in Gülnar District of Mersin Turkey. J. Herb. Med, 15: 100224. DOI:10.1016/j.hermed.2018.06.003
Sher H., Aldosari A., Ali A., et al, 2014. Economic benefits of high value medicinal plants to Pakistani communities: an analysis of current practice and potential. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed, 10: 71. DOI:10.1186/1746-4269-10-71
Tardío J., Pardo-de-Santayana M., 2008. Cultural importance indices: a comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants of Southern Cantabria (Northern Spain). Econ. Bot, 62: 24-39. DOI:10.1007/s12231-007-9004-5
Tinitana F., Rios M., Romero-Benavides J.C., et al, 2016. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed, 12: 29. DOI:10.1186/s13002-016-0100-4
Towns M. A., Quiroz D., Guinee L., et al, 2014. Volume, value and floristic diversity of Gabon's medicinal plant markets. J. Ethnopharmacol, 155: 1184-1193. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.052
Trotter, R. T., Logan, M. H., 1986. Informant Consensus: A New Approach for Identifying Potentially Effective Medicinal Plants. Plants in Indigenous Medicine and Diet. Redgrave Publishing Company, New York, pp. 91-112. Bedford Hills.
UCTEA, 2019. Chamber of environmental Engineers, air pollution report. (Accessed 28 June 2020).
Uzun M., Kaya A., 2016. Ethnobotanical research of medicinal plants in Mihalgazi (Eskişehir Turkey). Pharm. Biol, 54: 2922-2932. DOI:10.1080/13880209.2016.1194863
Uzun, A., PalabaşUzun, S., Yaǧmur Korkmaz, S., 2018. Diversity and systematics of seed plants in avşar campus, KahramanmaraşSütçü Imam university (KSU). KSU J. Agric. Nat. 21, 854-874.
Vitalini S., Iriti M., Puricelli C., et al, 2013. Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy) dan alpine ethnobotanical study. J. Ethnopharmacol, 145: 517-529. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.11.024
WHO, 2013. World Health Organization, Traditional Medicine Strategy: 2014-2023. Geneva, Switzerland.
Yaseen G., Ahmad M., Sultana S., et al, 2015. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in the thar desert (Sindh) of Pakistan. J. Ethnopharmacol, 163: 43-59. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2014.12.053
Yeşilada, E., 2002. Biodiversity in Turkish folk medicine. In: Şener, B. (Ed. ), Biodiversity. Springer, Boston, MA.
Zohary, M., 1973. Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East, vols. I-II. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stutgart.