﻿ 基于亥姆霍兹线圈的大尺寸均匀电磁场模拟
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1. 北京石油化工学院 机械工程学院, 北京 102617;
2. 北京航空航天大学 机械工程及自动化学院, 北京 100191

Large scale uniform electromagnetic field simulation based on Helmholtz coil
HUANG Songtao1 , ZHANG Wei2, ZHANG Pengfei2, QI Zewu2
1. School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617, China;
2. School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191, China
Abstract:Considering the technical requirements of the space physical environment simulation system, a square Helmholtz coil was built by a pair of axis symmetric rectangular coils which had the same turns, side length, height and thickness, based on the principle of Helmholtz coils. Combining with the constant current source and MCU control technology, the electromagnetic field simulation system was designed. Adopting finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench, the magnetic field distribution of the square Helmholtz coil was simulated, and the emphasis of the study was on the electromagnetic field distribution of the coil X-axis, Y-axis and near the surface of the coil. Based on the analysis results, the structure parameters of the square Helmholtz coil were designed. The magnetic flux density of 12 key points was measured inside the designed coil. The results show that the magnetic flux density and uniformity of the magnetic field inside the coil could satisfy the requirements of the space environmental simulation systems.
Key words: Helmholtz coil     uniform magnetic field     finite-element     ANSYS     constant current source

1 电磁场技术指标及构成

1) 磁场强度:±2 mT;

2) 磁场的外形尺寸要求:长度≤390 mm,宽度≤390 mm,高度≤350 mm;

3) 线圈内部中心200 mm×200 mm×220 mm的区域电磁场差值小于0.2 mT.

 图 1 电磁场模拟系统的组成Fig. 1 Composition of the electromagnetic field simulation system

2 正方形Helmholtz线圈电磁场模拟

2.1 正方形Helmholtz线圈轴线上的磁场

 图 2 正方形Helmholtz线圈示意图Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of square Helmholtz coil

2.2 几何模型

1) 线圈外形长宽均为384 mm;

2) 线圈的厚度为4 mm;

3) 单个线圈的高度为150 mm;

4) 两个线圈的中心距离为196 mm.

 图 3 正方形Helmholtz线圈的几何模型Fig. 3 Geometrical model of square Helmholtz coil

2.3 材料模型

2.4 有限元模型

 图 4 正方形Helmholtz线圈有限元分析模型Fig. 4 Finite element analysis model of square Helmholtz coil
2.5 载荷加载

3 计算结果及分析

 图 5 Z轴电磁场分布Fig. 5 Distribution of Z axis electromagnetic field

 图 6 X轴电磁场分布Fig. 6 Distribution of X axis electromagnetic field

 图 7 路径T3的电磁场分布Fig. 7 Distribution of T3 electromagnetic field

4 线圈设计及测试

1) 正方形Helmholtz线圈由一对匝数、边长、高度和厚度相同的共轴平行放置的矩形线圈构成;

2) 单个线圈的外形长宽均为384 mm,高度为150 mm;

3) 线圈选择1 mm的绝缘漆包线,单层绕制150匝,共绕4层,则线圈高度为150 mm,厚度约为4 mm;

4) 2个线圈的中心距离为196 mm;

5) 4个Helmholtz线圈的输入和输出端分别并联在一起,构成一个多层Helmholtz组合线圈;

6) 考虑到线圈的匝数多、用铜量大,设计了专门的绝缘骨架来支撑和绕制漆包线.

 图 8 电磁场测试点示意图Fig. 8 Schematic diagram of electromagnetic field test point

 mm 标号 坐标值(x,y,z) 1 (-80,-110,-82.5) 2 (80,-110,-82.5) 3 (-80,-110,82.5) 4 (80,-110,82.5) 5 (-80,0,-82.5) 6 (80,0,-82.5) 7 (-80,0,82.5) 8 (80,0,82.5) 9 (-80,110,-82.5) 10 (80,110,-82.5) 11 (-80,110,82.5) 12 (80,110,82.5)

 mT 标号 磁感应强度 标号 磁感应强度 1 2.25 7 2.20 2 2.25 8 2.20 3 2.30 9 2.27 4 2.30 10 2.27 5 2.16 11 2.31 6 2.16 12 2.31

5 结 论

1) 根据外层空间物理环境模拟系统电磁场模拟的要求,基于Helmholtz线圈的工作原理,采用一对匝数、边长、高度和厚度相同的共轴平行放置的矩形线圈构成正方形Helmholtz线圈,结合恒流源和单片机控制技术,设计了一套电磁场模拟系统.

2) 建立了正方形Helmholtz线圈的几何模型和有限元分析模型,采用ANSYS Workbench有限元分析软件对该线圈的电磁场进行了数值模拟,结果表明线圈内部的磁感应强度和电磁场分布的均匀性可以满足测试指标的要求.

3) 根据计算结果,设计了正方形Helmholtz线圈的结构参数,实际测试的结果表明,12个关键测试点的电磁场分布均匀,磁感应强度的幅值能够达到2 mT,且最大差值小于0.2 mT,可以满足外层空间物理环境模拟系统测试的需要.

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#### 文章信息

HUANG Songtao, ZHANG Wei, ZHANG Pengfei, QI Zewu

Large scale uniform electromagnetic field simulation based on Helmholtz coil

Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronsutics, 2015, 41(2): 203-208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2014.0168