四川动物  2016, Vol. 35 Issue (2): 201-209

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文章信息

田姗, 徐向龙, 刘松涛, 张淑萍
TIAN Shan, XU Xianglong, LIU Songtao, ZHANG Shuping
达赉湖水域变化对水鸟群落的影响
The Influence of Dalai Lake Area Change on Waterbird Community
四川动物, 2016, 35(2): 201-209
Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 2016, 35(2): 201-209
10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20150302

文章历史

收稿日期: 2015-09-30
接受日期: 2016-01-15
达赉湖水域变化对水鸟群落的影响
田姗1, 徐向龙1, 刘松涛2, 张淑萍1*     
1. 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081;
2. 内蒙古达赉湖国家级自然保护区管理局, 内蒙古海拉尔 021008
摘要: 内蒙古达赉湖国家级自然保护区是东北亚鸟类迁徙的重要停歇地和繁殖地,被列入拉姆萨尔"国际重要湿地"。近10年来,达赉湖面积急剧减少,造成湿地环境变化,从而可能对水鸟群落结构产生影响。本文分析了达赉湖2004—2013年湖水面积变化对水鸟群落结构的影响,主要研究结果如下:湖水面积与水鸟多样性及均匀度指数呈显著负相关,与雁形目全年平均多样性指数呈不显著负相关,与鸻形目全年平均多样性指数呈显著负相关,与鹳形目全年平均多样性指数呈不显著正相关。对湖水面积与重点保护物种数量的相关性分析表明,2004年到2011年湖水面积下降期间,灰鹤Grus grus、蓑羽鹤Anthropoides virgo、大天鹅Cygnus cygnus、小天鹅C. columbianus及遗鸥Larus relictus的种群数量均有所增加,而丹顶鹤G. japonensis、白枕鹤G. vipio及疣鼻天鹅C. olor的种群数量则在下降。随着内蒙古东北部暖干化气候的持续,湖水面积的继续缩减可能引起大面积沙化,进而影响水鸟的停留和繁殖,因此有必要对该地区水鸟群落与湖泊动态的关系进行长期监测。
关键词: 达赉湖     水鸟群落     水域变化    
The Influence of Dalai Lake Area Change on Waterbird Community
TIAN Shan1, XU Xianglong1, LIU Songtao2, ZHANG Shuping1*     
1. College of Life and Environmental Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China;
2. Administration Bureau of Dalai Lake National Nature Reserve, Hailaer, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 021008, China
Abstract: Dalai Lake National Nature Reserve is an important stopover site and breeding site of the northeast Asia bird migration routes, and it has been listed in the Ramsar Wetlands of International Importance. The area of Dalai Lake is narrowed in recent ten years, and this will influence the waterbird community through the variation of wetland environment. In this paper, the influence of lake area change on the waterbird community and the population size of some protected species were studied. The main results were showed as follows: in recent 10 years, the area change of the lake was negatively correlated with the diversity index and the evenness index, and negatively correlated with the diversity index of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes; a positive correlation coefficient was observed between the lake area change and the Ciconiiformes diversity index, but not significant (P=0.48). The population size of the common crane (Grus grus), the demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo), the whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), the tundra swan (C. columbianus) and the relic gull (Larus relictus) increased, while the population size of red-crowned crane (G. japonensis), white-naped crane (G. vipio) and the mute swan (C. olor) decreased along with lake area decreasing from 2004 to 2011. These results may be due to the formation of low water area during area decreasing, which was beneficial for the foraging of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes species. With the climate warming in Inner Mongolia, long-term water area decreasing will cause desertification and this will influence the stopover of many waterbirds species. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a long-term study on the relationship between waterbird community and area change of Dalai Lake.
Key words: Dalai Lake     waterbird community     water area change    

达赉湖国家级自然保护区位于内蒙古呼伦贝尔草原腹地,是以保护水鸟及湿地草原生态系统为主的保护区(刘丙万等,2005)。以达赉湖水系为主体发育的湿地生态系统是该保护区的主要生态类型(李光宇,2006),泥岸、浅水和湖边湿草甸为水鸟提供了丰富的食物资源。每年春秋季都有百余种、数万只水鸟在达赉湖湿地停歇或繁殖(梁秀梅等,2008a),其中包括丹顶鹤Grus japonensis、白枕鹤G. vipio、疣鼻天鹅Cygnus olor、遗鸥Larus relictus等国家重点保护物种,因而达赉湖是东北亚-澳大利亚水鸟迁徙的重要驿站。

20世纪90年代初以来,达赉湖地区暖干化现象十分显著,致使达赉湖水位下降,水面面积由2 300 km2减少到1 900 km2(特喜铁,梁秀梅,2009)。湖