林业科学  2018, Vol. 54 Issue (5): 101-108 PDF
DOI: 10.11707/j.1001-7488.20180511
0

#### 文章信息

Liu Meihong, Peng Limin, Fu Feng, Song Boqi, Wang Dong

Sound Insulation Performance of Wooden Damping Composites

Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2018, 54(5): 101-108.
DOI: 10.11707/j.1001-7488.20180511

### 作者相关文章

Sound Insulation Performance of Wooden Damping Composites
Liu Meihong, Peng Limin , Fu Feng, Song Boqi, Wang Dong
Research Institute of Wood Industry, CAF Beijing 100091
Abstract: 【Objective】In order to obtain new composite material with properties of light, thin and good acoustic insulation performance, the single homogeneous wooden material was composited with the polymer multilayer damping material, and the parameters of wooden damping composites were optimized.【Method】Medium density fiberboard (MDF) and rubber material (R) were composited under the following manufacture conditions: the hot pressing temperature was 100 ℃, the hot pressing pressure was 3 MPa, the hot pressing time was 10min and the coating amount was 64 g. The mechanical properties of wooden damping composites were determined as following: modulus of elastic (MOE) was 3 490 MPa, flexural strength (MOR) was 30.9 MPa and internal bond strength was 1.24 MPa. On the basis of reducing the amount of coating and improving the production efficiency, the mechanical properties of the wooden damping composites were satisfied. Using the all-factor experiment, the impedance tube was applied to investigate the effects of thickness and density of MDF and R on sound insulation performance. The influence extent of each composite parameter on the sound insulation performance was analyzed and determined by SPSS19.0.【Result】MDF thickness showed a significant impact on the sound insulation performance, with the MDF thickness increased from 3 mm to 5 mm, the weighted sound insulation increased from 34 dB to 39 dB, an increase of 5 dB. In the low frequency band, the sound insulation performance of wooden damping composites were controlled by its own stiffness, therefore, the sound insulation performance was influenced by surface density and damping properties to a small extent. With the increase of MDF thickness, the vibration velocity decreased and the sound insulation increased, which attributed to the same frequency incident acoustic excitation. The damping ratio increased from 0.176 to 0.258 with the increase of MDF thickness, an increase of 31.8%. Therefore, the higher damping performance, the greater sound insulation was found. The R thickness showed a significant correlation with the sound insulation performance and the correlation coefficient was 0.979. As the R thickness increased from 0.8 mm to 2 mm, the weighted sound insulation increased from 30 dB to 37 dB, an increase of 7 dB. In the low frequency band, the sound insulation performance was mainly controlled by the stiffness. The slope of sound insulation curve was increased with the increasing stiffness. With the increase of the incident frequency, over the stiffness control area, the resonance effect was gradually disappeared and moved to the quality control area. With the increased of the surface density, the sound insulation performance of the wooden damping composites increased. When the high frequency was reached, the sound insulation performance was mainly controlled by damping performance. The damping ratio of the wooden damping composite increased from 0.065 to 0.201. The higher the damping ratio, the better the damping performance of the composite materials was found. With the increase of the damping performance, the resonance of the plate was suppressed, and the sound insulation at the resonant frequency was improved. The critical frequency moved to high frequency range, which inhibited the anastomosis effects, and the weir valley became shallow and the sound insulation increased. With the R density increased, the weighted sound insulation increased from 36 dB to 37 dB, non-significant effect of R density on sound insulation performance was observed.【Conclusion】The thickness of MDF and R have a great effect on the sound insulation performance of wooden damping composites, and the R density has little effect on the sound insulation performance. The better acoustic damping properties of wooden damping composites were achieved with the following parameters: the MDF thickness was 2 mm, the R thickness was 2 mm and the R density was 2.3 g·cm-3.
Key words: wooden materials    rubber materials    multi-layer composite    damping performance    sound insulation performance

1 材料与方法 1.1 试验材料

MDF，市购，厚度为(1.5±0.14) mm、(2.0±0.04) mm、(2.5±0.05) mm和(6.0±0.04) mm，密度为0.65 g·cm-3，含水率为4.5%，4种厚度MDF的弹性模量分别为2 780、2 900、3 110和3 456 MPa。R，市购，厚度为(0.8±0.2) mm、(1.2±0.2) mm和(2.0±0.2) mm，密度为2.0、2.3和2.5 g·cm-3，R材料能承受的温度范围为-20~100 ℃，常温下的损耗因子为0.472 9。异氰酸酯胶黏剂，由上海亨斯迈聚氨酯有限公司生产，棕黄色液体，固含量(固体质量分数)为100%，黏度为工业级。

1.2 试样制备

 图 1 复合试样结构 Figure 1 Structure of composite sample
1.3 试验设计

1.4 性能测试 1.4.1 面密度测试

 ${G_0} = \frac{{G \times {{10}^4}}}{{L \times B}}。$ (1)

1.4.2 力学性能测试

 $S = \frac{{E{h^3}}}{{12(1 - {\mu ^2})}}。$ (2)

1.4.3 阻尼性能测试

1.4.4 隔声性能测试

 $R = {\rm{lg}}\frac{1}{{{E_t}/{E_i}}} = 10{\rm{lg}}\frac{1}{\tau }。$ (3)

 图 2 隔声性能的测试装置 Figure 2 Sound insulation performance test device

 图 3 确定计权隔声量Rw的标准曲线 Figure 3 The standard curve of the weight sound transmission loss Rw
2 结果与分析 2.1 单元厚度对复合材料隔声性能的影响

 图 4 声波传递示意 Figure 4 Sketch of sound wave transmission

 图 5 复合材料的计权隔声量 Figure 5 Weight sound transmission loss of composite materials

 图 6 单层MDF的隔声性能曲线 Figure 6 Sound insulation performance of single layer MDF

 图 7 R单板的隔声性能曲线 Figure 7 Sound insulation curve of rubber veneer

 图 8 单层MDF与MDF/ R隔声性能的对比 Figure 8 Comparison of single layer MDF and MDF/R sound transmission loss

 图 9 MDF厚度不同的复合材料的隔声性能 Figure 9 Sound insulation performance of the composites with different thickness of MDF
 图 10 R厚度不同的复合材料的隔声性能 Figure 10 Sound insulation performance of composite materials with different thickness
 图 11 R密度不同的复合材料的隔声性能 Figure 11 Sound insulation performance of composite materials with different rubber density
 图 12 木质阻尼复合材料的阻尼比 Figure 12 Damping ratio of wood damping composites

2.2 R密度对复合材料隔声性能的影响

3 结论

1) 2种材料单独作为隔声材料都存在缺陷，将中密度纤维板(MDF)与橡胶材料(R)进行3层复合，可有效提高单层MDF隔声性能及R在共振频率处的隔声性能，与同等厚度及相同面密度的单层MDF隔声性能相比提高了10 dB左右。

2) MDF厚度和R厚度增加，对复合材料的隔声性能具有显著影响。R密度增加，对复合材料的隔声性能几乎无影响。通过分析材料参数对复合材料隔声性能影响规律，最终确定参数MDF厚度为2 mm、R厚度为2 mm、R密度为2.3 g·cm-3时，复合材料的隔声性能较佳。

 马大猷. 2002. 噪声振动控制工程手册[M]. 北京: 机械工业出版社. (Ma D Y. 2002. Noise and vibration control engineering manual[M]. Beijing: Mechanical Industry Press. [in Chinese]) 潘涵. 2012. 聚氯乙烯基复合材料的层合结构对隔声性能的影响. 杭州: 浙江理工大学硕士学位论文. (Pan H. 2012. Effect of laminated structure of PVC composites on sound insulation performance. Hangzhou: MS thesis of Zhejiang University of Technology. [in Chinese]) 王康乐, 温华兵, 陆金铭, 等. 2014. R芯夹层板隔声特性研究[J]. 噪声与振动控制, 34(2): 192-195. (Wang K L, Wen H B, Lu J M, et al. 2014. Study on sound insulation characteristics of rubber core sandwich plate[J]. Noise and Vibration Control, 34(2): 192-195. [in Chinese]) 辛锋先, 张钱城. 2016. 金属板轻质隔墙隔声性能的探究[J]. 山西建筑, 42(7): 111-112. (Xin F X, Zhang Q C. 2016. Study on sound insulation performance of lightweight partition wall of metal plate[J]. Shanxi Architecture, 42(7): 111-112. [in Chinese]) 杨军伟, 蔡俊, 邵骢. 2013. 微穿孔板—蜂窝夹芯复合结构的隔声性能[J]. 噪声与振动控制, 33(4): 122-125. (Yang J W, Cai J, Shao C. 2013. Sound insulation performance of micro perforated plate-honeycomb sandwich composite structure[J]. Noise and Vibration Control, 33(4): 122-125. [in Chinese]) Arunkumar M P, Jagadeesh M, Pitchaimani J, et al. 2016. Sound radiation and transmission loss characteristics of a honeycomb sandwich panel with composite facings: effect of inherent material damping[J]. Journal of Sound & Vibration, 383: 221-232. Ghofrani M, Ashori A, Rezvani M H, et al. 2016. Acoustical properties of plywood/waste tire rubber composite panels[J]. Measurement, 94: 382-387. DOI:10.1016/j.measurement.2016.08.020 Han T, Wang X, Xiong Y, et al. 2015. Light-weight poly (vinyl chloride)-based soundproofing composites with foam/film alternating multilayered structure[J]. Composites: Part A, 78: 27-34. DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.07.013 Lee M H, Kang D B, Kim H Y, et al. 2007. Classification of geared motor noise using a cepstrum and comb lifter analysis[J]. Int J Precis Eng Manuf, 8: 39-45. Liang J Z, Jiang X H. 2012. Soundproofing effect of polypropylene/inorganic particle composites[J]. Compos Part B Eng, 43: 199-1998. Maderuelo-Sanz R, Nadal-Gisbert A V, Crespo-Amorós J E, et al. 2012. A novel sound absorber with recycled fibers coming from end of life tires (ELTs)[J]. Appl Acoust, 73: 402-408. DOI:10.1016/j.apacoust.2011.12.001 Ng C F, Hui C K. 2008. Low frequency sound insulation using stiffness control with honeycomb pan[J]. Applied Acoustics, 69(4): 293-301. DOI:10.1016/j.apacoust.2006.12.001 Reixacha R, Reyb R D, Albab J, et al. 2015. Acoustic properties of agroforestry waste orange pruning fibers reinforced polypropylene composites as an alternative to laminated gypsum boards[J]. Constr Build Mater, 77: 124-129. DOI:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.12.041 Shen C, Xin F X, Lu T J. 2016. Sound transmission across composite laminate sandwiches: influence of orthogonal stiffeners and laminate layup[J]. Composite Structures, 143: 130-136. DOI:10.1016/j.compstruct.2016.02.007 Yang H S, Kim D J, Lee Y K, et al. 2004. Possibility of using waster tire composites reinforced with rice straw as construction materials[J]. Bioresour Technol, 95: 61-65. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2004.02.002 Yin X, Cui H. 2009. Acoustic radiation from a laminated composite plate excited by longitudinal and transverse mechanical drives[J]. Appl Mech-Trans ASME, 76: 044501. DOI:10.1115/1.3086429 Yin X, Gu X, Cui H, et al. 2007. Acoustic radiation from a laminated composite plate reinforced by doubly periodic parallel stiffeners[J]. Sound Vib, 306(3/5): 877-889. Yoon K H, Yoon S T, Park O O. 2000. Damping properties and transmission loss of polyurethane. Ⅰ. Effect of soft and hard segment compositions[J]. Appl PolymSci, 75: 604-611. DOI:10.1002/(ISSN)1097-4628 Zhao J, Wang X M, Chang J M, et al. 2010. Sound insulation property of wood-waste tire rubber composite[J]. Compos Sci Technol, 70: 2033-2038. DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2010.03.015 Zhu X, Kim B, Wang Q, et al. 2013. Recent advances in the sound insulation properties of bio-based materials[J]. Bio Resources, 9: 1764-1786.