﻿ 基于模糊自适应PID的欠驱动船舶靠泊自动控制方法
 舰船科学技术  2024, Vol. 46 Issue (11): 70-74    DOI: 10.3404/j.issn.1672-7649.2024.11.013 PDF

Automatic control method for underactuated ship berthing based on fuzzy adaptive PID
FAN Lingyun, TENG Liguo
School of Applied Technology, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116399, China
Abstract: Underactuated ships have uneven power layout, poor turning and speed regulation capabilities, and their berthing is difficult to control due to external wind, water flow, and other factors. To address this issue, this study proposes a fuzzy adaptive PID based automatic control method for underactuated ship berthing. This time, based on the kinematic and dynamic models of underactuated ships, the line of sight navigation algorithm is used to determine the berthing and navigation trajectory of underactuated ships. Then, using the fuzzy adaptive PID control algorithm, the optimal PID control parameters are obtained through real-time inference using fuzzy control rules through the bow controller and speed controller of the ship berthing, to control the heading angle and speed of the ship berthing towards the desired heading and speed. Finally, the control output of the fuzzy adaptive PID control algorithm is transmitted to the execution mechanism of the ship, allowing the ship to navigate according to the planned berthing path, achieving automatic control of underactuated ship berthing. The experimental results show that this method can effectively control the berthing of underactuated ships, and can still maintain low ship heading angle and navigation speed control errors at low speeds, but the application effect is not satisfactory.
Key words: PID     underactuated     ship berthing     automatic control
0 引　言

1 欠驱动船舶靠泊自动控制方法 1.1 构建欠驱动船舶动力学模型

 \begin{aligned} Q = \sqrt {{x^2} + {y^2}} ，\qquad\qquad\\ \left\{ {\begin{aligned} & {x = a\cos \zeta - b\sin \zeta }，\\ & {y = a\sin \zeta - b\cos \zeta }，\\ & {a = {f_a}\left( {a,b,c} \right) + {\tau _a}/{m_{11}}}，\\ & {b = {f_b}\left( {a,b,c} \right)}，\\ & {c = {f_c}\left( {a,b,c} \right) + {\tau _c}/{m_{33}}}。\end{aligned}} \right. \end{aligned} (1)

1.2 基于视线角导航的欠驱动船舶靠泊路径确定

 $U\left( k \right) = {K_p}e\left( t \right) + \sum\limits_{i = 0}^k {{T_i}e\left( t \right)} \delta {\left( t \right)_{x'\left( t \right)y'\left( t \right)}} + {T_d}\frac{{\Delta e\left( t \right)}}{T} 。$ (6)

2 实验分析 2.1 实验环境设置

 图 2 船舶靠泊航行停泊区域 Fig. 2 Ship berthing and navigation berthing area
2.2 实验结果分析

 图 3 船舶状态变量 Fig. 3 Ship state variables

 图 4 船舶靠泊执行机构输入 Fig. 4 Input of ship berthing actuator

 图 5 船舶靠泊自动控制结果 Fig. 5 Automatic control results of ship berthing

3 结　语

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