﻿ 舰载雷达多天线辐射特性和EMC特性分析
 舰船科学技术  2023, Vol. 45 Issue (23): 145-148    DOI: 10.3404/j.issn.1672-7649.2023.23.025 PDF

Analysis of radiation characteristics and EMC characteristics of multiple antennas in ship radar
WANG Zhi-xia, DONG Yan-ru, LU Jiong-yao, YANG Sen
Shanxi Vocational University of Engineering Science and Technology, Jinzhong 030619, China
0 引　言

1 舰载雷达电磁环境特性分析

 图 1 舰载雷达天线的整体布局 Fig. 1 The overall layout of ship radar antennas

 $P_r=\frac{\sigma P_iG_tA_e}{\left(4\text{π}R^2\right)^2}\text{。}$

 ${R_{\max }} = {\left[ {\frac{{\sigma {P_1}{G_i}{A_0}}}{{{{(4 \text{π} )}^2}}}} \right]^{1/4}} \text{，}$

 ${f_s}\left( t \right) = \frac{{A\left( t \right)}}{{\sqrt 2 }}\exp \left( {j2\text{π} {f_c}t + \varphi } \right) \text{。}$

 ${S_s}\left( t \right) = \frac{{B\left( {t - {t_0}} \right)}}{{\sqrt 2 }}\exp \left( {j2\text{π} {f_c}\left( {t - {t_0}} \right) + \varphi } \right) \text{。}$

2 舰载雷达天线的辐射特性研究 2.1 雷达天线的辐射场建模

 图 2 电基本振子的模型示意图 Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the model of an electric fundamental oscillator

 $Jdv = {e_z}Idl \text{，}$

 ${\boldsymbol{A}} = \frac{{{\mu _0}}}{{4\text{π} }}\int_V {\frac{{J{e^{ - jkr}}}}{r}} {\mathrm{d}}v = {e_z}\frac{{{\mu _0}Idl}}{{4\text{π} r}}{e^{ - jkr}} \text{，}$

 $\left\{ {\begin{array}{*{20}{l}} {\left\{ {\begin{array}{*{20}{l}} {{H_r} = 0}，\\ {{H_\theta } = 0}，\\ {{H_\varphi } = j\dfrac{{Idl}}{{2\lambda r}}\sin \theta \left( {1 + \dfrac{1}{{jkr}}} \right){e^{ - jkr}}} ，\end{array}} \right.} \\ {\left\{ {\begin{array}{*{20}{l}} {{E_r} = j\dfrac{{Idl}}{{2\text{π} {r^2}}}\sqrt {{\mu _0}/{\varepsilon _0}} \cos \theta \left( {1 + \dfrac{1}{{jkr}}} \right){e^{ - jkr}}}，\\ {{E_\theta } = j\dfrac{{Idl}}{{2\lambda r}}\sqrt {{\mu _0}/{\varepsilon _0}} \sin \theta \left( {1 + \dfrac{1}{{jkr}} - \dfrac{1}{{{k^2}{r^2}}}} \right){e^{ - jkr}}} ，\\ {{E_\varphi } = 0} 。\end{array}} \right.} \end{array}} \right.$

1）近场

 $\left\{ {\begin{array}{*{20}{l}} {{E_\sigma } = \dfrac{{ - 2jldl\cos \theta }}{{4\text{π} \omega {\varepsilon _e}{r^3}}}}，\\ {{E_\theta } = \dfrac{{ - jldl\sin \theta }}{{4\text{π} \omega {\varepsilon _0}{r^3}}}}，\\ {{H_\theta } = \dfrac{{Idl\sin \theta }}{{4\text{π} {r^2}}}} 。\end{array}} \right.$

2）远场

 $\left\{ {\begin{array}{*{20}{l}} {{E_\theta } = j\dfrac{{Idl}}{{2\lambda r}}\sqrt {{\mu _0}/{\varepsilon _0}} \sin \theta {e^{ - \mu t}}} ，\\ {{H_\varphi } = j\dfrac{{Idl}}{{2\lambda r}}\sin \theta {e^{ - jkr}}} 。\end{array}} \right.$
2.2 舰载雷达多天线的耦合特性分析与建模

 图 3 舰载雷达多天线耦合示意图 Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of multi antenna coupling for ship radar

 $|E(r,\theta ,\varphi )| = \left( {\frac{{60I}}{r}} \right)f\left( {\theta ,\varphi } \right) \text{，}$

 $f(\theta ,\varphi ) = |E(r,\theta ,\varphi )|/\left( {\frac{{60I}}{r}} \right) \text{。}$

 $F(\theta ,\varphi ) = \frac{{|E(\theta ,\varphi )|I}}{{\left| {{E_{{man} }}} \right|}} = \frac{{f(\theta ,\varphi )}}{{{f_{{man} }}}} \text{，}$

 $P(\theta ,\varphi ) = \frac{{{F^2}(\theta ,\varphi )}}{{{f_{{man} }}}} \text{。}$

 图 4 雷达天线长度10 m、工作频率20 MHz的波瓣图 Fig. 4 Lobe pattern with a radar antenna length of 10 m and a working frequency of 20 MHz
3 舰载雷达多天线的EMC特性分析与仿真 3.1 雷达系统的电磁兼容多极子算法

 图 5 电磁兼容敏感区域辐射强度与距离的关系曲线 Fig. 5 Relationship curve between radiation intensity and distance in sensitive areas of electromagnetic compatibility

 $\sum\limits_{j = 1}^N {{Z_{ij}}} {f_j} = {g_i},i = 1,2, \cdots ,N\text{，}$

 $\frac{{{e^{ - jk\mid {{\vec r}_1} + {{\vec r}_2}}}}}{{\left| {\overline {{r_1}} + \overline {{r_2}} } \right|}} = - jk\sum\limits_{l = 0}^\infty {} (2l + 1)C\left( {k{r_1}{r_2}} \right){P_l}\left( {{{\hat r}_1} \cdot {{\hat r}_2}} \right) \text{。}$

 图 6 快速多极子的球面波模型 Fig. 6 Spherical wave model of fast multipole

 $4\text{π} ( - j){P_l}\left( {{{\hat r}_1} \cdot {{\hat r}_2}} \right) = \int {{d^2}} \hat k{e^{ - \mu \bar k}}{P_l}\left( {{{\hat r}_1} \cdot {{\hat r}_2}} \right) \text{。}$
3.2 雷达系统的电磁兼容特性仿真

1）平台搭建

2）雷达天线系统建模

3）天线辐射场和干扰特性计算

 图 7 敏感区域内雷达多天线电磁兼容特性的仿真结果 Fig. 7 Simulation results of electromagnetic compatibility characteristics of radar multi-antenna in ship sensitive area

A曲线为采用多极子算法的仿真结果，B曲线为实测结果，可以看出该仿真算法的符合度较高。

4 结　语

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