﻿ 基于高频地波雷达的舰船目标探测系统
 舰船科学技术  2023, Vol. 45 Issue (20): 182-185    DOI: 10.3404/j.issn.1672-7649.2023.20.034 PDF

Design of ship target detection system based on high frequency ground wave radar
QIU Ling, ZHOU Jing-hai
Jiangxi University of Technology, Nanchang 330003, China
Abstract: This article theoretically analyzes various interference sources and explores the target detection range of high-frequency ground wave radar through vertical electromagnetic waves; Focus on curve fitting in the range and Doppler directions based on quadratic and cubic fitting curves. Finally, the structure of the ship target recognition system is presented, and the range spectrum and azimuth spectrum curves are provided.
Key words: high frequency ground wave radar     target identification     ships
0 引　言

1 高频地波雷达技术 1.1 高频地波雷达探测机理

 ${f_B} = \pm \sqrt {g/{\text π} \lambda } \approx \pm 0.102\sqrt {{f_R}} \text{，}$ (1)

 ${\mu ^2} = 1 - \frac{{f_p^2}}{{{f^2}}}\text{，}$ (2)
 ${f_p} = \frac{1}{{2{\text π} }}\sqrt {\frac{{N_e^2}}{{m{\varepsilon _0}}}} 。$ (3)

 ${P_r} = {S_r}{A_r}\text{。}$ (4)

 ${S_r} = \frac{{E_r^2\left( R \right)}}{\varOmega }\text{，}$ (5)
 ${A_r} = \frac{{{G_r}{\lambda ^2}}}{{4{\text π} }}\text{。}$ (6)

 $P = \frac{{{E^2}\left( R \right){P_t}\gamma {G_t}{G_r}{\lambda ^2}\sigma }}{{a{\text π} {\varOmega ^2}P_0^2G_0^2{L_s}}}\text{。}$ (7)
1.2 高频地波雷达目标探测区域估计

 $E=\frac{1}{k{n}^{2}R\mathrm{sin}\theta }·\frac{\partial }{\partial \theta }\left(\mathrm{sin}\theta \frac{\partial {U}_{r}}{\partial \theta }\right) \text{。}$ (8)

 ${U_r} = \frac{{\exp \left( { - jkD{m_0}} \right)}}{{{R_0}D\sin {{\left( {\dfrac{D}{{{R_0}}}} \right)}^{\frac{1}{2}}}}}\left( {{W_d} + {W_r} + {W_s}} \right)\text{。}$ (9)

 $\zeta \left( {x,y} \right) = \sum\limits_{m,n = - \infty }^\infty {H\left( {m,n} \right)\exp \left( { - j\frac{{2{\text π} m}}{L}x - J\frac{{2{\text π} m}}{L}y} \right)} \text{。}$ (10)

 图 1 地波衰减随距离的变化曲线 Fig. 1 Curve of ground wave attenuation with distance
2 船舶目标探测算法

 $g\left( x \right) = a{x^2} + bx + c \text{。}$ (11)

 $y\left( x \right) = g\left( x \right) - f\left( x \right)\text{。}$ (12)

 $f\left( x \right) = a{x^3} + b{x^2} + cx + d\text{。}$ (13)

 图 2 距离向曲线拟合 Fig. 2 Distance curve fitting

 图 3 多普勒向曲线拟合 Fig. 3 Doppler curve fitting

 $v\left( t \right) = s\left( t \right) + n\left( t \right)\text{。}$ (14)

 ${p_d} = \int_{}^\infty {{p_1}\left( x \right){\rm{d}}x} \text{，}$ (15)
 ${p_{fa}} = 1 - \int_0^t {p\left( x \right){\rm{d}}x} \text{。}$ (16)

 图 4 多普勒向噪声功率曲线 Fig. 4 Doppler noise power curve
 $P\left( x \right) = \left\{ {\begin{array}{*{20}{l}} \dfrac{x}{{\bar \sigma _s^2}}\exp \left( { - \dfrac{{{x^2}}}{{2\sigma _s^2}}} \right), & x \geqslant 0,\\ 0,&x < 0 。\end{array}} \right.$ (17)
3 船舶目标识别系统

 图 5 基于高频地波雷达的船舶目标识别系统 Fig. 5 Ship target recognition system based on high frequency ground wave radar

 图 6 距离谱 Fig. 6 distance spectrum

 图 7 方位谱 Fig. 7 Azimuth spectrum
4 结　语

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