﻿ 虚拟现实技术下船舶航行环境视景三维仿真
 舰船科学技术  2023, Vol. 45 Issue (13): 146-149    DOI: 10.3404/j.issn.1672-7649.2023.13.029 PDF

Three-dimensional visual simulation of ship navigation environment based on virtual reality technology
CHEN Hai-shen
Zhengzhou Institute of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou 450000, China
Abstract: In order to realize the safe navigation of ships, a 3D simulation system of ship navigation environment is built based on virtual reality technology, added, integrated a variety of climate conditions. After establishing the model of ship motion and attitude, and the interference model of wave and sea breeze to ship motion, the ship navigation is simulated, it can effectively simulate the real navigation environment, and provides reference.
Key words: virtual reality     three-dimensional simulation     navigation environment     wave interference
0 引　言

1 虚拟现实技术 1.1 虚拟现实系统的组成

 图 1 虚拟现实系统构成示意图 Fig. 1 Fig.1Schematic diagram of the virtual reality system

1.2 虚拟现实中的关键技术

2 基于虚拟现实的船舶航行三维仿真 2.1 虚拟航行环境仿真系统组成和工作原理

 图 2 基于虚拟现实的船舶航行环境三维仿真系统 Fig. 2 Three-dimensional simulation system of ship navigation environment based on virtual reality

2.2 三维实体建模和地形生成

 图 3 三维实体建模和地形生成的过程 Fig. 3 The process of 3D solid modeling and terrain generation

 图 4 生成的三维实体模型 Fig. 4 Three-dimensional solid model

2.3 船舶运动模型

 $\begin{gathered} {S_X} = \left( {{V_S}{\rm{sin}}\alpha + {V_C}{\rm{sin}}\beta } \right)T + \Delta {B_X} \text{，} \\ {S_Y} = \left( {{V_S}{\rm{cos}}\alpha + {V_C}{\rm{cos}}\beta } \right)T + \Delta {B_Y} \text{。} \\ \end{gathered}$ (1)

 $\Delta B = K{\left( {\frac{{{B_a}}}{{{B_w}}}} \right)^{\frac{1}{2}}}{e^{ - 0.14{V_S}}}{V_a}T \text{。}$ (2)

 图 5 船舶的运动坐标系 Fig. 5 The coordinate system of a ship's motion

$x{}_0O{y_0}$ 为固定坐标系， $xOy$ 为运动坐标系，船体为刚体，根据牛顿质心运动的动量和动量矩定理，建立运动坐标系中的运动方程：

 $\left\{ \begin{gathered} X = m\left( {u - v\psi - {x_G}{\psi ^2}} \right) \text{，} \\ Y = m\left( {v + u\psi + {x_G}\psi } \right) \text{，} \\ N = {I_Z}\psi + m{x_G}\left( {v + u\psi } \right) \text{。} \\ \end{gathered} \right.$ (3)

2.4 海浪、海风的干扰模型及其他环境条件

 $\zeta \left( t \right) = \sum\limits_{i = 1}^N {{\zeta _{ai}}} \cos \left( {{k_i}x + {\omega _i}t + {\varepsilon _i}} \right) \text{，}$ (4)

 $\zeta \left( t \right) = Tide + \sum\limits_{i = 1}^N {{\zeta _{ai}}\cos \left[ {{k_i}\left( {x\sin {\theta _i} + z\cos {\theta _i}} \right) + {\omega _i}t + {\varepsilon _i}} \right]} \text{。}$ (5)

 $\left\{ \begin{gathered} {X_{wind}} = 0.5{C_x}\left( {{a_R}} \right){\rho _A}U_R^2{A_f} \text{，} \\ {Y_{wind}} = 0.5{C_y}\left( {{a_R}} \right){\rho _A}U_R^2{A_s} \text{，} \\ {N_{wind}} = 0.5{C_n}\left( {{a_R}} \right){\rho _A}U_R^2{A_s}L \text{。} \\ {K_{wind}} = {Y_{wind}}{h_c} \\ \end{gathered} \right.$ (6)

2.5 实验结果

 图 6 航行仿真系统中不同的虚拟环境 Fig. 6 Different virtual environments in navigation simulation system

3 结　语

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