﻿ 基于粒子群算法和PID相结合的船舶电喷柴油机自动控制
 舰船科学技术  2023, Vol. 45 Issue (1): 147-150    DOI: 10.3404/j.issn.1672-7649.2023.01.026 PDF

Automatic control of marine electric injection diesel engine based on particle swarm optimization algorithm and PID
LI Chun-ya, YANG Chen-fei
Henan Wisdom Education and Intelligent Technology Application Engineering Technology Research Center, Zhengzhou 451460, China
Abstract: Marine diesel engine is its power source. The traditional marine diesel engine uses mechanical hydraulic controller, which has the problems of low control efficiency and poor accuracy. In recent years, marine electric injection diesel engine based on automatic control technology has become the mainstream product in the industry. This paper focuses on the function modeling and controller construction of marine electric spray diesel engine. The control algorithm based on particle swarm optimization and PID controller is adopted to significantly improve the control effect of marine electric spray diesel engine.
Key words: particle swarm optimization     PID     function modeling     controller
0 引　言

1 基于容积法的船舶电喷柴油机的数学建模

 图 1 船舶电喷柴油机的容积模型 Fig. 1 Volume model of marine EFI diesel engine

1）能量守恒方程

 $\frac{{{\rm{d}}(mU)}}{{{\rm{d}}\varphi }} = - p\frac{{{\rm{d}}{V_s}}}{{{\rm{d}}\varphi }} + \frac{{{\rm{d}}{Q_\theta }}}{{{\rm{d}}\varphi }} - \sum {\frac{{{\rm{d}}{Q_n}}}{{{\rm{d}}\varphi }}} - {h_{ss}}\frac{{{\rm{d}}{m_s}}}{{{\rm{d}}\varphi }} \text{。}$

2）质量守恒方程

 $\frac{{{\rm{d}}m}}{{{\rm{d}}\varphi }} = \frac{{{\rm{d}}{m_B}}}{{{\rm{d}}\varphi }} + \frac{{{\rm{d}}{m_s}}}{{{\rm{d}}\varphi }} - \frac{{{\rm{d}}{m_e}}}{{{\rm{d}}\varphi }} \text{。}$

 ${M_0} - {M_1} = \frac{\text{π}}{{30}}{J_0}\frac{{{\rm{d}}n}}{{{\rm{d}}t}} \text{。}$

 ${M_0} = \frac{{{H_g}g{n_0}}}{{2\text{π} }} \text{。}$

 ${T}_{e}={F}_{e}R \Bigg(\text{sin}\phi +\frac{\lambda \mathrm{sin}2\phi }{2\sqrt{1-{\lambda }^{2}{\mathrm{sin}}^{2}{\phi }^{}}}\Bigg) 。$

 图 2 船舶电喷柴油机的容积、压力曲线图 Fig. 2 Volume and pressure curves of marine EFI diesel engines

 ${V_1} = \frac{{\text{π} {d^2}}}{4} \cdot {s_1} \text{，}$

 ${p_1}{V_1} = {m_1}{R_g}T \text{，}$

 ${m_1} = \frac{{{p_1}{V_1}}}{{{R_g}{T_1}}} \text{。}$

 ${T_2} = {T_1}{\left( {\frac{{{V_1}}}{{{V_2}}}} \right)^{k - 1}} \text{，}$

 ${p_2} = {p_1}{\left( {\frac{{{V_1}}}{{{V_2}}}} \right)^k} \text{，}$

2 基于粒子群算法和PID的船舶电喷柴油机自动控制器开发 2.1 粒子群算法及PID控制器原理

1）PID控制器

PID控制器是最基础的一种负反馈控制器，控制器的控制方程为：

 $F\left( t \right) = {K_p}\left[ {f\left( t \right) + \frac{1}{{{T_i}}}\int\nolimits_0^i {f\left( t \right){\rm{d}}t + {T_d}\frac{{{\rm{d}}f\left( t \right)}}{{{\rm{d}}t}}} } \right] + u\left( t \right) \text{。}$

PID控制器的原理如图3所示。

 图 3 非线性PID控制图 Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of nonlinear PID controller

2）粒子群算法

 $\begin{gathered} {P_i}^{k + 1} = {c_1}\xi \left( {{X_i}^k - {V_i}^k} \right) + {c_2}\eta \left( {{p_{gD}}^k - {V_{iD}}^k} \right) ，\\ {X_{i + 1}}^{k + 1} = {X_i}^k + {V_i}^k。\\ \end{gathered}$

2.2 基于粒子群算法和PID结合的电喷柴油机控制器开发

 图 4 船舶电喷柴油机自动控制器原理图 Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of automatic controller formarine EFI diesel engine

1）EICU

EICU模块的主要功能是实现电喷柴油机控制系统与外界的通信功能，包括船舶的主机遥控系统等，EICU将柴油机控制系统的转速、转向等运行参数通过无线通信链路或者有线网络发送至主控单元，用户可通过EICU获取柴油机控制系统的基本运行状态。

2）ECU电子控制单元

ECU电子控制单元是电喷柴油机控制系统的核心，集成了PID控制器和粒子群控制算法，ECU电子控制单元由2个互为备用的单元构成，可以完成电喷柴油机的速度控制、运行模式调节、喷油控制等。

 图 5 ECU电子控制单元电路图 Fig. 5 Circuit diagram of ECU electronic control unit

3）ACU

ACU是电喷柴油机控制系统的液压动力控制器，主要负责对控制系统的增压泵、液压开关进行控制。

2.3 电喷柴油机控制器仿真测试

 图 6 电喷柴油机的转速控制曲线 Fig. 6 Speed control curve of EFI diesel engine
3 结　语

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