﻿ 全要素雷达目标模型构建方法
 舰船科学技术  2021, Vol. 43 Issue (3): 139-145    DOI: 10.3404/j.issn.1672-7649.2021.03.027 PDF

1. 海军士官学校，安徽 蚌埠 233032;
2. 海军装备部装备项目管理中心，北京 100102

Research on building method of total element radar target model
LIU Shang-fu1, WANG Ying2, XIE Yong-liang1
1. Naval Petty Officer Academy, Bengbu 233012, China;
2. Naval Equipment Project Management Center, Beijing 100102, China
Abstract: The construction of radr target model is one of the hotspots in the field of radar target data simulation. Total element modeling method is adapted in construction of radr target model. The internal and external factors that influence the generation of target are analyzed, which include target feature elements, radar system elements and electromagnetic environment elements. Then the mathematical models of target feature elements, radar system elements and electromagnetic environment elements are described in detail, and target original data is simulated. The model can be expanded rapidly by parameter configuration and basic data substitutin.
Key words: total element modeling     target feature elements     radar system elements     electromagnetic environment elements
0 引　言

1 目标特征要素对目标模型的影响

RCS决定目标反射截面积的统计特性，是监测周期间的平均值，相同条件下RCS大的目标反射回波强，显示幅度强，更容易被检测；反之，RCS小的目标反射回波弱，显示幅度弱，更难被检测。

RCS的大小受目标形状的反射方向性、目标体材质的反射率、雷达电磁波的波长影响，其中目标形状的反射方向性在目标运动改变方向、改变姿态过程，电磁波反射方向变化较大，导致在扫描周期内，同一目标的RCS值是不相同的。在模拟目标RCS过程中，采用估计平均值的方法来描述RCS值大小。

Swerling的4种模型考虑的是两类极端情况：扫描间独立和脉冲间独立。从实际情况分析，目标起伏特性在2种情况之间。目前已证明，其检测性能也介于两者之间。

2 雷达体制要素对目标模型的影响 2.1 有效辐射功率

 $P=\frac{{P}_{t}{G}_{t}{G}_{r}\tau }{L} {\text{。}}$ (1)

2.2 接收机噪声系数

 $F=\frac{{N}_{o}}{{N}_{i}{G}_{a}}=\frac{{S}_{i}/{N}_{i}}{{S}_{i}{G}_{a}/{N}_{o}}=\frac{{\left(SNR\right)}_{i}}{{\left(SNR\right)}_{o}}\text{。}$ (2)

 ${S}_{i}=k{T}_{0}BF{\left(SNR\right)}_{o} \text{。}$ (3)

 ${S}_{\min}=k{T}_{0}BF{\left(SNR\right)}_{o\min} ,$ (4)

 ${R_{\max }} = {\left[ {\frac{{{P_t}\sigma A_r^2}}{{4{\text{π}} {\lambda ^2}k{T_0}BFL{{(SNR)}_{o\min }}}}} \right]^{1/4}}{\text{。}}$ (5)

2.3 天线方向图

2.4 脉冲描述字

 ${S}_{LFM}\left(t\right)=u\left(t\right){e}^{j2{\text{π}} {f}_{0}t}=A\cdot rect\left(\frac{t}{\tau }\right){e}^{j2{\text{π}} \left({f}_{0}t+\frac{1}{2}\mu {t}^{2}\right)} \text{。}$ (6)

 图 9 根据想定位置信息和测量精度调整目标位置 Fig. 9 Adjust the target position according to the desired position information and measurement accuracy
4.4 计算方位幅度分布

 图 10 天线方向图 Fig. 10 Antenna pattern

 图 11 通过天线方向图调制目标功率和幅度效果 Fig. 11 Target power and amplitude effects are modulated by antenna pattern
4.5 计算距离幅度分布

 图 12 目标距离上幅度分布计算效果 Fig. 12 Calculation effect of amplitude distribution on target distance

 图 13 噪声中原始视频显示效果 Fig. 13 Original video display in noise
5 结　语

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