﻿ 船舶顶部开口舱室火灾烟气流动蔓延特性分析
 舰船科学技术  2020, Vol. 42 Issue (12): 177-180    DOI: 10.3404/j.issn.1672-7649.2020.12.035 PDF

1. 海参某训练中心，北京 100841;
2. 中国人民解放军91388部队，广东 湛江 524000

Analysis of characteristics of fire smoke flow in ceiling-opening ship cabin
LI Dong-bing1, LI Jie2
1. A training center of the navy general staff, Beijing 100841, China;
2. No.91388 Troops of PLA, Zhanjiang 524000, China
Abstract: The pool fire in ship cabin with a ceiling opening is the main study object in this paper. Based on the fire smoke spreading phenomenon and its relevant model, a simplified point-source model is designed to analyze theoretically characteristic parameters in the ship cabin adjacent to the fire source. The fire scene in a ceiling-opening cabin in reconstructed by Fire Dynamics Simulaltor (FDS). And then the simulation analyses are carried out on characteristics of both the fire smoke at the opening and the fire scene in the adjoing cabin as well as the main influence factors. The applicability of the simplified point-source model is verified by simulation.
Key words: ceinling opening     smoke overflow     a simplified point-source model     FDS simulation
0 引　言

1 船舶舱室烟气填充过程

 图 1 顶部开口舱室火灾烟气填充示意图 Fig. 1 The schematic diagram of fire smoke fiiling in ship cabin with ceiling openings

1.1 开口气体交换模式

 \left\{\begin{aligned} &P = {P_\rho } + {P_{ex}} \text{，}\\ &{P_\rho } = \Delta \rho g{D_v}\text{，}\\ &{P_{ex}} = 1/(2{\rho _g}){\left(\frac{{{{\dot Q}_c}}}{{{c_p}{T_g}{A_v}}}\right)^2}\text{。} \end{aligned}\right. (1)

 $B = \frac{{\Delta \rho g{D_v}}}{{{P_{ex}}}} = \frac{{Gr}}{{{{\operatorname{Re} }^2}}}\text{。}$ (2)

 $B = C\frac{{\Delta TD_v^5}}{{{{\dot Q}_c}^2}} = f(\Delta T,{D_v},{\dot Q_c}) \text{。}$ (3)

 图 2 无量纲数B与水平开口气体交换模式间的关系 Fig. 2 The relationship betweent dimensionless number B and gas exchange pattern in horizontal opening
1.2 水平开口烟气流动模型

 ${\dot m_{out}} = 0.352{C_d}\pi {\rho _g}{({D^5}g\varepsilon )^{1/2}} \text{，}$ (4)
 $\Delta T = 0.522{T_a}{\left( {\frac{{\dot Q}}{{{c_p}{\rho _a}{g^{1/2}}{T_a}{A^{5/4}}}}} \right)^{0.72}}\left( {\frac{{h{A_T}}}{{{c_p}{\rho _a}{g^{1/2}}{A^{5/4}}}}} \right){ ^{ - 0.66}}\text{。}$ (5)

2 水平开口点源简化模型

 $\dot Q = {c_p}{\dot m_0}\Delta {T_s} \text{，}$ (6)
 $\Delta {T_s} = 25{({\dot Q^{2/5}}/{z_0})^{5/3}}\text{，}$ (7)
 ${z_0} = - 1.02D + 0.083{\dot Q^{2/5}} \text{。}$ (8)
 图 3 水平开口舱室点源简化模型 Fig. 3 The simplified model of point source in ship cabin with horizontal opening

 $\Delta T = 9.1{(\frac{{{T_a}}}{{gc_p^2{\rho _a}}})^{1/3}}{\dot Q^{2/3}}{(H - {z_0})^{ - 5/3}}\text{。}$ (9)
3 理论分析和仿真验证

 图 4 船舶舱室小尺度平台结构示意图 Fig. 4 The structure schematic diagram of ship small scale platform
3.1 小尺度船舶水平开口舱室CFD模型

3.2 CFD仿真分析

 图 5 仿真过程中探头布置图 Fig. 5 The layout of measuring pionts in CFD simulation
3.3 烟气流动参数对比分析

4 结　语

1）这一水平开口点源简化模型可应用于火源舱上方舱室火灾危害性评估，能够直观反映顶部水平开口舱室火灾烟气流动蔓延规律；

2）火源舱池火直径和开口尺寸是影响舱室火灾蔓延的主要因素，因此可通过封舱灭火的手段杜绝舱室间烟气的蔓延以达到火灾扑救的目的；

3）临舱火灾特征参数主要受火源舱池火直径和开口尺寸影响，因此可通过火灾探测装置初步判定火源位置和火场状况，为船舶火灾救治提供参考。

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