﻿ 船用柴油机进气消声器声学性能研究及改进设计
 舰船科学技术  2018, Vol. 40 Issue (8): 81-84 PDF

Research and improved design of intake silencers used in marine diesel engines
WEN Hua-bing, QIAN jin, HONG Liang-xing
School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003, China
Abstract: To improve the acoustic attenuation performance of intake silencers for marine, the geometric model was established according to it’s actual model. The acoustic performance of the silencer was simulated by using LMS virtual lab. The influence of the distance between sound-absorbing plates, the diameter of sound-absorbing plates and the perforated plate on both sides of silencer on the transmission loss were analyzed. The results show that the transmission loss of the silencers increases by about 2.5 dB with the each 2 mm reduction in the distance between the sound absorbing plates. In most frequency range, the transmission loss of the silencer is increased by 1 to 2 dB with the sound-absorbing material for each additional 40 mm diameter. The acoustic attenuation performance of the improved silencer increases by about 8dB form 800～1 600 Hz, with the addition of perforated plates on both sides of the sound absorption plates, which is conducive to suppress the inlet noise of the turbocharger.
Key words: intake silencer     acoustic performance     FEM     transmission loss     absorption plates
0 引 　言

1 建立消声器有限元模型

 图 1 消声器几何模型 Fig. 1 Muffler geometry

 $L \leqslant \frac{c}{{6{f_{\max }}}}\text{。}$ (1)

2 消声器声学性能分析

 图 2 1 600 Hz时消声器内部声场分布图 Fig. 2 Sound pressure in silencer of 1 600 Hz

 $TL = 10\lg \frac{{{W_1}}}{{{W_2}}} = {L_{W1}} - {L_{W2}}{\text{，}}$ (2)

 ${L_{W1}} = {L_{P1}} + 10\lg {S_1}\text{，}$ (3)
 ${L_{W2}} = {L_{P2}} + 10\lg {S_2}\text{。}$ (4)

 图 3 消声器的传递损失频域分布图 Fig. 3 The transmission loss of the original silencer

3 传递损失实验验证

 图 4 实验现场图 Fig. 4 Experimental site

 图 5 实验装置示意图 Fig. 5 Experimental setup

 图 6 消声器的传递损失对比 Fig. 6 Comparison of silencer transmission loss
4 消音性能影响因素分析及改进设计

 图 7 吸声片间距对传递损失的影响 Fig. 7 The influence of the spans between sound absorption plates on the transmission loss

 图 8 吸声外径对传递损失的影响 Fig. 8 The influence of the diameters of sound absorption plates on the transmission loss

 图 9 加穿孔板示意图 Fig. 9 Add perforated plate

 图 10 穿孔板的声阻抗 Fig. 10 Impedance of perforation plate

 图 11 加穿孔板后消声器的传递损失对比图 Fig. 11 The comparison diagram of the improved silencer transmission loss

5 结　语

1）当吸声片间距减小时，由于气流通道面积减小，消声器的传递损失增加；吸声片间距每减小2 mm，消声器的传递损失增加约 2.5 dB。

2）吸声材料外径每增加40 mm，消声器的传递损失在大多数频率范围内可增加1~2 dB。

3）在吸声片两侧增加穿孔板对中频段的消声效果明显提高，在800～1 600 Hz频率范围内的消声效果可提高8 dB左右。

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