﻿ 变频调速对离心泵振动的影响研究
 舰船科学技术  2016, Vol. 38 Issue (8): 72-75 PDF

1. 武汉第二船舶设计研究所, 湖北 武汉 430064 ;
2. 武汉理工大学, 湖北 武汉 430063

Research on the influence of centrifugal pump vibration under different speed-adjustable method
ZHANG De-man1, YU Jian1, QIU Hao-ran2, SHANG Jin1
1. Wuhan Second Ship Design and Research Institute, Wuhan 430064, China ;
2. Wuhan University of Technoligy, Wuhan 430063, China
Abstract: Centrifugal pump is widely used in fluid pipeline system as a power source machinery, in order to meet the flow needs of system for centrifugal pump in different conditions, throttle valve or electric converter can be used to adjust the flow of centrifugal pump. The characteristics of the vibration of the centrifugal pump were analyzed, which indicates that obvious low frequency spectrum of the vibration of the centrifugal pump can be detected, and the frequency of the spectrum was closely related with the speed of the pump and motor. The vibration level about outlet of the centrifugal pump in two kinds of flow control methods was compared, The results shows that the vibration on the centrifugal pump under electric converter control is smaller. Therefore, the frequency control can reduce the vibration of centrifugal pump.
Key words: centrifugal pump     vibration     frequency conversion
0 引  言

1 试验设备及试验方法

 图 1 离心泵试验台架示意图 Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of centrifugal pump test bench

2 不同调速方法对离心泵性能的影响 2.1 基本特性

 $\frac{{{Q}_{1}}}{{{Q}_{2}}}=\frac{{{n}_{1}}}{{{n}_{2}}}$ (1)
 $\frac{{{H}_{1}}}{{{H}_{2}}}=\frac{{{n}_{1}}^{2}}{{{n}_{2}}^{2}}$ (2)

2.2 不同调速方法对离心泵扬程的影响分析

 图 2 节流调速时扬程随流量变化曲线 Fig. 2 The change of head with the flow rate when the throttle is adjustable

 图 3 变频调速时扬程随流量变化曲线 Fig. 3 The change of head with the flow rate when the frequency is adjustable

 $\Delta P=(\lambda \times L/D+\zeta )\times {{V}^{2}}/2g$ (3)

3 不同调速方法对离心泵振动的影响 3.1 变频调速对振动频率的影响分析

 图 4 离心泵出口振动频谱 Fig. 4 Vibration spectrum of the outlet of centrifugal pump
3.2 变频调速与节流调速对振动分析

 图 5 节流调速时流速与振动变化曲线 Fig. 5 Curve of velocity and vibration when the throttle is adjustable

 图 6 变频调速时流速与振动变化曲线 Fig. 6 Curve of velocity and vibration when the frequency is adjustable

4 结  语

1）相对于节流调速，采用变频调速时，离心泵流量升高，其扬程随之提高，该变化趋势更符合特定管路系统的实际需求。

2）离心泵振动信号的低频部分具有明显的与转速呈倍数关系的线谱。采用变频调速时，离心泵的低频线谱会向更低频移动。

3）用于变频调速的离心泵在其设计时，应充分兼顾其低转速时的运行效率，以进一步降低离心泵低速运行时的振动幅度。

4）相对于节流调速，变频调速时离心泵出口振动有较大幅度的降低，流量调低幅度越大，振动降低幅度越大，试验测量的离心泵流量降到额定流量的45%时，使用变频调速的振动比使用节流调速的振动低13 dB。

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