﻿ 船用冷凝器真空专家控制系统研究
 舰船科学技术  2016, Vol. 38 Issue (5): 101-104 PDF

Research on the expert control system of vacuum for the marine condenser
GONG Xian, SUN Jian-hua, ZOU Hai
Wuhan Second Ship Design and Research Institute, Wuhan 430205, China
Abstract: In order to relax the unfortunate effect which the variation of cooling water temperature plays on the system of condenser vacuum controla mathematic model of a marine condenser is presented according to its working principle and its structure features. An expert control system of condenser vacuum is designed. Simulink software is used for the simulation of the control system. In the simulation, the load of condenser and the temperature of cooling water changes separately. Result shows that the condenser vacuum is kept invariant by the expert control systemIt has referring significance for control system design of condenser vacuum.
Key words: condenser     vacuum     expert Control
0 引 言

1 船用冷凝器数学模型 1.1 假设条件

1）在壳侧的蒸汽区，认为是定压凝结，在定压的条件下凝结蒸汽温度不变；

2）忽略管子蓄热，视管壁温度与蒸汽温度相等；

3）由于蒸汽体积远大于热井冷凝水体积，可视为蒸汽体积等于冷凝器体积且为定值；

4）不考虑冷凝器向环境散热。

1.2 冷凝器模型 1.2.1 冷凝器壳侧

1）蒸汽凝结过程

 $\frac{\text{d}}{\text{d}\tau }\left( {{m}_{s}}{{h}_{s}} \right)=\sum\limits_{i}{{{G}_{i}}{{h}_{i}}}-{{q}_{n}}{{h}_{w}}-{{q}_{c}}{{h}_{c}}-Q,$ (1)
 $V\frac{\text{d}{{\rho }_{s}}}{\text{d}\tau }=\sum\limits_{i}{{{G}_{i}}}-{{q}_{n}}-{{q}_{c}}.$ (2)

 $Q=A\alpha \frac{{{t}_{ou}}-{{t}_{in}}}{\ln \frac{{{t}_{s}}-{{t}_{in}}}{{{t}_{s}}-{{t}_{ou}}}}.$ (3)

2）蒸汽和空气分压过程

 ${{p}_{k}}={{p}_{s}}+{{p}_{a}},$ (4)
 $\frac{\text{d}{{p}_{s}}}{\text{d}t}=\frac{\text{d}{{M}_{s}}}{\text{d}t}\cdot \frac{{{R}_{s}}\left( {{t}_{s}}+273 \right)}{V},$ (5)
 $\frac{\text{d}{{p}_{a}}}{\text{d}t}=\frac{\text{d}{{M}_{a}}}{\text{d}t}\cdot \frac{{{R}_{a}}\left( {{t}_{a}}+273 \right)}{V},$ (6)

1.2.2 冷凝器管侧

 $Q-D{{C}_{p}}\left( {{t}_{ou}}-{{t}_{in}} \right)={{M}_{w}}{{C}_{p}}\frac{\text{d}{{t}_{ou}}}{\text{d}\tau }.$ (7)

2 专家控制系统设计与仿真验证

 图 1 凝器仿真模型结构图 Fig. 1 The simulation structure block of condenser model

 图 2 真空控制专家知识图形化表示 Fig. 2 The graphical expert knowledge of vacuum control system

 图 3 冷凝器真空控制原理图 Fig. 3 Diagram of the condenser vacuum control principle

 图 4 变负荷仿真实验结果 Fig. 4 The simulation results of changing load

 图 5 变冷却水入口温度仿真实验结果 Fig. 5 The simulation results of changing cooling water temperature

3 结 语

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