﻿ 基于Ansys的飞行员座椅坐垫舒适性仿真
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1. 北京航空航天大学 生物与医学工程学院, 北京 100191;
2. 中国人民解放军 空军航空医学研究所, 北京 100036;
3. 泰州职业技术学院 机电技术学院, 泰州 225300;
4. 中国标准化研究院, 北京 100088

Comfort evaluation for aircraft seat cushion based on finite element model
LI Xianxue1, DING Li1 , WANG Xingwei2, WEI Shihua3, ZHOU Qianxiang1, HU Huimin4
1. School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191, China;
2. Institute of Aviation Medicine of Air Force, Chinese People's Liberation Army, Beijing 100036, China;
3. School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Taizhou Polytechnic College, Taizhou 225300, China;
4. China National Institute of Standardization, Beijing 100088, China
Abstract:The comfort of pilot's seat is highly demanded and the sitting pressure is a very important index to evaluate the seat comfort. A human-seat cushion finite element model including the pelvis was built to simulate the pressure distribution in the human-seat cushion interface and interior the human body, and finally to evaluate the comfort of the plane's seat. The simulation and experiment results were compared to verify the validity of the model, after that simulation under different overload accelerations was performed. By an analysis of the pressure distribution and maximum pressure, the simulation and experiment results are highly consistent and the maximum pressure is linearly dependent with the overload acceleration. The results show that the human-seat cushion model is validated and can be used to evaluate the comfort of different seat cushions under different overload accelerations.
Key words: finite element method     seats     pressure distribution     overload acceleration     ergonomics

1 考虑骨盆的人-坐垫模型

1.1 骨盆的建模

1.2 臀部-大腿的建模

1.3 座椅坐垫建模

1.4 材料参数

1.5 约束关系

1.6 有限元网格划分

 图 1 人-座椅坐垫有限元模型Fig. 1 Human-seat cushion finite element model
2 坐姿下应力分布有限元计算 2.1 施加载荷

 过载加速度/g 施加压力/kPa 脊柱处 髋骨处 腰部 大腿 1 84 6.5 1 4 2 168 13.0 2 8 3 252 19.5 3 12 4 336 26.0 4 16 5 420 32.5 5 20 8 672 52.0 8 32
2.2 仿真计算

3 模型验证

3.1 坐应力实验

3.2 应力分布对比

 图 2 坐应力分布的仿真与实验结果对比Fig. 2 Simulation and experiment results of sitting pressure
3.3 坐骨结节连线上应力分布

 图 3 仿真和实验坐骨结节连线上应力分布对比Fig. 3 Sitting pressure across the ischium nodule line from simulation and experiment

4 计算结果与分析 4.1 总体应力分布

 图 4 模型上的等效应力分布Fig. 4 Von Mises pressure distribution on the model
4.2 坐垫上应力分布

 图 5 坐垫上的等效应力分布Fig. 5 Von Mises pressure distribution on the cushion

4.3 骨盆上应力分布

 图 6 坐姿下骨盆应力分布Fig. 6 Pressure distribution of the pelvis
4.4 不同过载下应力分布 4.4.1 不同过载下人体内部最大应力

 图 7 不同过载加速度下模型最大应力Fig. 7 Maximum pressure on the interior human body at different overload accelerations
4.4.2 不同过载下坐垫上最大应力

 图 8 不同过载加速度下坐垫最大应力Fig. 8 Maximum pressure on the cushion at different overload accelerations

5 结 论

1) 本文建立了人-座椅坐垫模型,其中人模型包括骨盆等骨组织以及臀部和大腿等软组织,并模拟计算了地面环境下坐姿时的应力分布情况,通过与实验测得的坐应力进行对比分析,计算得到的应力分布变化趋势以及应力值与实验获得的数据相一致,验证了模型的有效性.

2) 本文中建立的模型可以分析人体内部骨盆以及软组织的应力分布情况,获得应力在人体内部集中区域,进而分析可能会引起人体不舒适的部位.

3) 鉴于仿真计算的优势,本文中模型还可用于不同过载下的应力分布计算.比如飞行员执行特殊任务时或者载人火箭发射阶段航天员面临的过载情况,通过分析应力分布,可以针对性地提出改善舒适性的措施,对于我国飞机座椅等的设计改进具有一定的参考价值.

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#### 文章信息

LI Xianxue, DING Li, WANG Xingwei, WEI Shihua, ZHOU Qianxiang, HU Huimin

Comfort evaluation for aircraft seat cushion based on finite element model

Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronsutics, 2015, 41(2): 241-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2014.0122