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1. 军械工程学院 电子与光学工程系, 石家庄 050003;
2. 军械工程学院 无人机工程系, 石家庄 050003

Method of testability evaluation using hierarchical testability model
YIN Yuanwei1, SHANG Chaoxuan1 , MA Yanheng2, LI Gang1
1. Department of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Ordnance Engineering College, Shijiazhuang 050003, China;
2. Department of UAV Engineering, Ordnance Engineering College, Shijiazhuang 050003, China
Abstract:The layered and modularized design is always used in complex electronic equipment, where the maintenance level and test requirement are both characterized by hierarchy configuration. Therefore, a novel evaluation approach was presented based on hierarchical testability model. The multi-signal flow graph model has ability to present multi-fault factors, according to the hierarchical classification based on maintenance level and physical structure of equipment, the multi-signal flow graph model could be established for each level respectively. For any part which can't be tested or maintained, the multi-signal flow graph model would be established on lower level; thereby the hierarchical testability model was built up. The hierarchical dependence matrix was obtained based on above model, and then the testing level of equipment on each maintenance level was obtained by using the mathematical model of testability evaluation. The analysis results of example prove that this method could effectively evaluate the testability levels of equipments in different situations, at the same time this method could provide available guidance and assistance for the design of testability and maintenance.
Key words: testability     multi-signal flow graph     testability evaluation     hierarchical testability model     hierarchical dependency matrix

1) 具有多故障属性.MSFG定义了功能故障和一般故障2类故障.一般故障是模块不能正常运行信息流的故障;功能故障指影响模块某项预期功能实现的故障,可定义多个,功能故障的多维属性决定了故障的多维属性.

2) 使用信号表征系统.MSFG通过信号表征系统或其组成单元特性的特征、状态、属性及参量,可以是定量的参数值,又可以是定性的特征描述,并能区分正常和异常两种状态.信号之间是相互独立的,使用信号的多维属性代表重要的功能属性进行建模,可不用考虑具体的故障模式,能够实现对未知故障的检测与隔离,建模难度低.

3) 信号与测试之间的相关性.故障与测试之间的相关性是通过确定模块关联信号和测试关联信号的定义来实现的,并以此构造故障-测试相关性矩阵.每个测试点上可以定义多个测试项,每个测试项都对应测试相应的信号,并且测试点的所有测试项都能检测其信息流路径上所有模块的一般故障. 1.2 层次多信号流模型

1) 层次建模对象可灵活确定.以往是以底层故障和测试项目为对象,现在分析的对象为层次上的故障和测试,根据测试资源与维修级别所达到的水平,层次上的故障可以是元件级的亦可是模块级的,因此测试性模型划分的层次与维修级别具有对应关系.

2) 在某层可单独进行测试性建模与分析.在测试资源与维修级别确定的情况下,将在该层能够测试的物理结构和故障作为该层的分析对象,建立所在层次的MSFG,确立本层内的故障传播路径和故障-测试相关性.

3) 明确了MSFG的层间联系.如果在某维修级别出现无法测试的模块而需要借助更高维修级别的测试资源或者出现某层次模块内部的各故障模块无法进行故障隔离的情况时,则将这些模块作为分析对象,建立新的MSFG,这样就构成了层间的MSFG,可以满足诊断维修的要求.

 图 1 装备HMSFG结构示意图 Fig. 1 HMSFG structure of equipment

2 层次测试性评估方法

 图 2 层次相关性矩阵形式化表示 Fig. 2 Chart of hierarchical DM

 分系统 故障现象 模块 内部组成 … 分系统1 天线不转 天线控制部分 伺服SD板变频器驱动电机 … 数码管无显示 显控部分 控制板显示板 电源故障 电源部分 配电分机油机或市电控制板电缆 E13显示 接近开关组

 图 3 分系统1的HMSFG模型 Fig. 3 HMSFG model of subsystem 1

 部分D1 T11 T21 T31 T41 ƒ11 0 0 1 1 ƒ21 0 1 1 1 ƒ31 1 1 1 1 ƒ41 0 0 0 1 部分D2 T12 T22 T32 T42 ƒ12 1 1 1 0 ƒ22 0 1 1 1 ƒ32 0 1 1 0 ƒ42 0 0 1 0

 维修级别 基层级 基地级 数量 γFI/% 数量 γFI/% 故障 65 127 测试 73 139 模糊度1 27 41.5 127 100 模糊度2 54 83.1 127 100 模糊度3 62 95.4 127 100 模糊度4 65 100 127 100 γFD/% 100 100

1) 本文提出的基于层次测试性模型的评估方法,很好地诠释了在不同维修级别与测试条件约束下装备具有不同评估结果的情况.

2) 装备作战使用时的测试诊断与维修活动主要发生在基层级,因此进行指标考核时在基层级明确了相应模糊度下的测试性指标.

3) 分析MSFG层间的联系,可为测试性设计、维修与备件储供提供决策帮助.需要进一步测试的部分,依据实际情况可做出改进设计、转换维修级别或者提供备件的决策.

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#### 文章信息

YIN Yuanwei, SHANG Chaoxuan, MA Yanheng, LI Gang

Method of testability evaluation using hierarchical testability model

Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronsutics, 2015, 41(1): 90-95.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2014.0029