﻿ 飞机使用升限对增压活塞发动机的匹配要求
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Requirement from maximum rate of climbing of aircraft service ceiling to turbocharged reciprocating engine
Xu Bin, Tan Longxing, Yang Shichun, Ji Fenzhu
School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191, China
Abstract:A wide operating range of engine is of vital to the safety operation of aircraft, especially at service ceiling. Through the dynamic analysis of the matching process between the aircraft and power plant which is composed of the turbocharged reciprocating engine and propeller, quantitative performance requirement for engine from the service ceiling was proposed, which proved to associate with the operating range and surplus power of engine. The operating range can also be used to evaluate the matching result besides the design point performance. This means that the conditions of cruising should guarantee the engine power recovery to sea level. A calibrated simulation model was created by GT-power. Its operating range was obtained by simulation and the factors influencing operating range were analyzed in theory. The advice of matching turbochargers based on the wide operating range was given considering the safety. This process can also be used to verify the margin of adjustment at service ceiling to ensure the safety.
Key words: aircraft piston engine     service ceiling     turbocharging     matching     operating range

1 飞机使用升限对发动机的动力要求

T=P,由式(7)结合飞机的速度V、运行高度下空气密度ρ,可计算出发动机不同转速下的阻升比γ.由式(9)可计算出螺旋桨阻力矩,等于发动机扭矩.综上可得不同发动机转速下使用升限最大爬升率所需发动机扭矩,转速和扭矩可归结为对发动机功率的要求.

2 对活塞发动机要求的仿真分析

 参数 数值 参数 数值 气缸布置 四缸水平对置 最大扭矩/(N·m) 142 气缸容积/cm3 1 211 额定功率/kW 73.5 压缩比 9∶1 额定转速/(r/min) 5 500 点火次序 1—4—2—3 使用升限/m 5 000

 图 1 5 km高度时增压比随转速、节气门变化规律Fig. 1 Variation of pressure ratio in different operating conditions at 5 km

 图 2 5 km高度发动机功率随转速、节气门变化规律Fig. 2 Variation of engine power in different eperating conditions at 5 km
3 发动机可调范围因素的分析

 图 3 压气机与发动机联合运行图Fig. 3 Engine running lines on compressor

4 结 论

1) 对飞机、发动机的匹配过程与发动机、增压器匹配过程进行联合分析,通过对飞机、螺旋桨的动力性分析将使用升限对爬升率的要求转化为发动机的剩余功率要求,并提出使用升限高度发动机工况可调范围的要求.

2) 建立了某发动机可用仿真模型并分析了其使用升限高度的可调范围和剩余功率,以此验证了安全调节范围要求.

3) 分析了涡轮增压发动机可调范围的影响因素.在满足压气机流量范围、增压比范围的基础上,可调范围主要受膨胀比、综合效率与废气阀放气质量的影响.

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#### 文章信息

Xu Bin, Tan Longxing, Yang Shichun, Ji Fenzhu

Requirement from maximum rate of climbing of aircraft service ceiling to turbocharged reciprocating engine

Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronsutics, 2014, 40(12): 1643-1647.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2013.0746