﻿ 基于自适应差分进化的矿卡转向运动学仿真
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Kinematical simulation analysis of steering system of mining dump truck based on adaptive differential evolution algorithm
Jiang Libiao, Cheng Cheng, He Jiashou, Liu Jianxiong
School of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
Abstract:Spatial kinematics formulations were built on the basis of the steering system of 220 ton mining dump truck, which were verified by the model built in ADAMS and referring to the kingpin caster angle and kingpin inclination angle. This research focused to use MATLAB to program the dual-trial adaptive differential evolution algorithm (DADEA) in order to work out the global optimal steering property. It made inner and outer wheel's corner of 220 ton mining dump truck meet to the Ackerman steering geometry of considering the wheel cornering characteristics to achieve pure rolling when turning. The design variables are the arm length of the steering trapezium (K) and its base angle (Φ). The results of the optimal steering property were analyzed and compared to the optimal results generated by ADAMS. It turns out the optimization results obtained by MATLAB are better than those obtained by ADAMS. It was proven by real car tire comparison test that the former can make the steering design more reasonable, improve the serious type wore situations of mining dump trucks, and extend the service life of the type.
Key words: mining dump truck     steering trapezium     spatial kinematics formulations     dual-trial adaptive differential evolution algorithm

220t矿卡自卸车前轴为非独立悬架,通常选择整体式转向梯形,而后置梯形可以较好地避免与车轮的运动干涉,如图 1所示.

 图 1 220t矿卡自卸车转向梯形机构Fig. 1 Steering system of 220t mining dump truck
1.2 理想内外轮转角关系

 图 2 考虑轮胎侧偏特性的理想内外轮转角关系示意图Fig. 2 Relationship between inner and outer wheel’s corner considering the wheel cornering characteristics

2 转向梯形的空间运动学理论 2.1 220t矿卡转向机构空间模型

 图 3 空间转向梯形模型Fig. 3 Steering trapezoid models in spatial coordinates
2.2 主销内倾角、后倾角的坐标变换

 图 4 左右主销空间模型Fig. 4 Space model around kingpin
2.3 220t矿卡内外轮转角关系方程的建立

 图 5 内轮转向角误差(δ′1-δ1)Fig. 5 Inner wheel steering angle error(δ′1-δ1)
2.4 220t矿卡转向系统模型的验证

 图 6 ADAMS和MATLAB内外轮转角仿真Fig. 6 Simulation of inner and outer wheel angle in ADAMS and MATLAB

 图 8 优化前、理论转向与ADAMS优化特性对比Fig. 8 Steering features comparison of original car, theory and ADAMS optimization

 图 9 双审判自适应差分进化示意图Fig. 9 Dual-trial adaptive differential evolution algorithm
3.2 优化设计过程 3.2.1 设计变量

 结果 K/mm Φ/(°) 最大误差/(°) 平均误差/(°) 实际样车 610 71.85 1.36 0.74 ADAMS优化 620 70 0.77 0.41 差分优化 626 68 0.82 0.19

 图 10 与阿克曼理想外轮转角的误差Fig. 10 Error compared with the outer corner of the ideal Ackerman

 图 11 优化前后的内外轮转角关系Fig. 11 Relationship between inner and outer wheel’s corner before and after optimization
3.4 实车轮胎对比性试验

 试验样车 K/mm Φ/(°) 轮胎寿命/h 国产 进口 1 610 71.85 4540 10060 2 626 68 5070 优化程度/% 2.62 5.36 11.67 12.20
4 结 论

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#### 文章信息

Jiang Libiao, Cheng Cheng, He Jiashou, Liu Jianxiong

Kinematical simulation analysis of steering system of mining dump truck based on adaptive differential evolution algorithm

Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronsutics, 2014, 40(10): 1335-1340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2014.0104